Person:Bethia King (3)

Watchers
Bethia King
m. 19 Mar 1830
  1. Hannah King1831 - 1915
  2. Mary Ann King1833 - 1834
  3. Mary King1834 - 1917
  4. Bethia King1836 - 1906
  5. Thomas King1838 - 1910
  6. Edward King1840 - 1906
  7. Ann King1843 - 1913
  8. Matilda King1846 - 1849
m. 30 Jan 1865
  1. Susannah Priscilla Moss1865 - 1950
  2. Victoria Alberta Moss1867 - 1948
  3. Alice Maud Mary Moss1869 - 1959
  4. Ellen Sarah Moss1870 - 1959
  5. Walter Abimelech Moss1872 - 1962
  6. Prince Leopold Moss1875 - 1957
  7. William Arthur Moss1876 - 1963
  8. Bethia Jane Moss1878 - 1971
  9. Ada Lavinia Moss1882 - 1960
Facts and Events
Name Bethia King
Gender Female
Christening[1] 30 Oct 1836 Caddington, Bedfordshire, England
Census[2] 6 Jun 1841 Caddington, Hertfordshire, EnglandAley Green
Census[3] 30 Mar 1851 Caddington, Hertfordshire, England
Census[4] 7 Apr 1861 Caddington, Hertfordshire, EnglandAley Green
Marriage 30 Jan 1865 Caddington, Bedfordshire, EnglandAll Saints
to William Moss
Census[5] 2 Apr 1871 Caddington, Hertfordshire, EnglandAley Green
Census[6] 3 Apr 1881 Caddington, Hertfordshire, EnglandAley Green
Census[7] 5 Apr 1891 Luton, Bedfordshire, England146 Chapel Street
Census[8] 31 Mar 1901 Caddington, Bedfordshire, EnglandFarley Green
Death[9] 4 Dec 1906 Luton, Bedfordshire, England138 Farley Hill

Early life

Bethia King was baptised on 30th October 1836 at Caddington in Bedfordshire, daughter of a straw plaiter named Susan King, formerly Dean, and her husband James King, an agricultural labourer. Bethia was the fourth of eight children, although one of her older sisters had died before Bethia was born, whilst her youngest sister also died young. Bethia's baptism records that the family lived at Pipers Bottom, to the south of Caddington parish at the hamlet of Aley Green, in the part of the parish which at that time was in Hertfordshire.

When Bethia was born, three of her grandparents were still alive; her paternal grandmother Mary King also lived at Caddington, whilst her maternal grandparents James and Elizabeth Dean lived at Gaddesden Row, about five miles south-west of Aley Green. Bethia's maternal grandfather James Dean died in 1840, when Bethia was three years old.

Bethia appears in the 1841, 1851 and 1861 censuses living with her parents and siblings in the Hertfordshire part of Caddington parish. In the 1841 census her paternal grandmother Mary King was also living with the family; Mary died in 1850. By 1851 Bethia was working as a straw plaiter, whilst in 1861 Bethia was working as a bonnet sewer.

Marriage

On 30th January 1865, aged 28, Bethia married a widower named William Moss, who was about six months younger than her and also from the Pipers Bottom area of Caddington. His first wife, Catherine Warren, had died four months earlier and he had three surviving children from his first marriage, who were aged between about six and two years old when Bethia and William married. Bethia will have known William from childhood, as she was his stepfather's niece and Bethia's brother Edward King had been living with William and his mother and stepfather back in the 1851 census.

Bethia and William went on to have nine children together between 1865 and 1882. Bethia's mother died eleven days after Bethia's first child, Susannah Priscilla, was born.

The 1871 census finds Bethia living at Aley Green next to a public house called The Boot, which elsewhere is described as being on Tipple Hill, suggesting the family may have been living on or near Tipple Hill Road - now a track leading from Mancroft Road to Manor Road, but contemporary maps show that there were houses on Tipple Hill Road. At the time of the 1871 census, Bethia was living with William, four daughters and one stepson, James. Bethia's two stepdaughters were staying with other relatives of William's on census night.

Bethia's stepson James was in trouble several times during the 1870s. He was convicted of theft in 1872, aged only 9, and in 1879 he was convicted of breaking into William's mother's house and stealing clothes. At that time it was said he "had for years been addicted to such practices". James was later to spend time in St Albans jail (where he appears in the 1881 census) before being sent to India in 1882.

The 1881 census finds William, Bethia and six of their children living at Aley Green. Their youngest child, Ada Lavinia, was born in 1882, by which time not only had William's children from his first marriage left home but so too had the eldest child he and Bethia had together: Susannah was working as a general servant in the neighbouring town of Luton by 1881. By the time Ada Lavinia was born William and Bethia were both 45 years old.

Luton

Some time between 1881 and 1885 the family left Caddington and moved to Luton. In about 1885 Bethia's daughter Susannah settled down with a man named Thomas Lewis. They were unable to marry as Thomas was already married, but separated from his wife, Ellen, who lived with another man. A newspaper report from July 1885 describes how Thomas's wife came to the Moss's house at Farley Hill in Luton and smashed a window. Bethia gave evidence against Ellen, saying that Ellen had "called her everything she could lay her tongue to, the nasty blackguard." The case was dismissed. A month later Bethia became a grandmother when Susannah and Thomas Lewis's first son, Thomas was born. He was born at 148 Chapel Street. This appears to have been one of a row of cottages which stood on the road now known as Farley Hill, but at that time interchangeably called either Chapel Street or Farley Hill. It was the main road leading from Luton to Caddington.

The 1891 census finds them living at 146 Chapel Street. As well as Bethia, William and seven of their children there were also four grandchildren, being Susannah's children, along with their father Thomas Lewis, making for fourteen people living in the house. Whilst the house was described as having more than five rooms, contemporary maps suggest that it was part of a terrace of fairly modest properties.

Bethia and William briefly returned to Caddington parish, although not to the Aley Green area. The 1901 census finds them at Farley Green, which was just over the border between Caddington and Luton at the top of Farley Hill. They later returned to the same terrace of houses at the bottom of Farley Hill in Luton. That terrace (which appears to have been demolished in the 1920s) was home to several of Bethia's family around this time - she and William lived at number 138, their daughter Susannah and her family lived at number 148 and their daughter Bethia and her family lived at number 152.

Bethia appears to have had 42 grandchildren born in her lifetime, although some died young. All were born in or near Luton.

Bethia died on 4th December 1906, aged 70, at 138 Farley Hill. William survived her by just over four years.

Image Gallery
References
  1. Baptisms register, in Church of England. Caddington Parish Registers. (Bedford: Bedfordshire Record Office).
    BAPTISMS solemnized in the Parish of Caddington in the County of Bedford in the Year 1836
    No.When BaptizedChild's Christian NameParent's NameAbodeQuality, Trade, or ProfessionBy whom the Ceremony was performed
    ChristianSurname
    1232Oct[obe]r 30thBethia
    Dau[ghter] of
    James & MaryKingPiper's BottomLaborerW. Mellard, Vicar

    Although this baptism gives the mother's name as Mary, it is presumed that this is in error for the following reasons:
    1. In the 1841, 1851 and 1861 censuses Bethia was living with her father James and his wife Susan. Whilst Susan could be a stepmother, there is no evidence of a Mary King wife of James having died between 1836 and 1841 and James remarrying to a Susan.
    2. One of the younger siblings who appears with Bethia in the 1841 censuses, Edward, was born after birth certificates were introduced. His birth certificate gives his mother's name as Susan King formerly Dean. James King and Susan Dean had married at Great Gaddesden in 1830, therefore were married well before Bethia's baptism in 1836.
    3. There is a sequence of baptisms at Caddington being the children of James and Susan, with a gap between 1834 and 1838, which Bethia's baptism falls in the middle of. There are no other baptisms for children of James and Mary King.
    Therefore, for the baptism entry to be correct, James King would have had to marry Susan Dean in 1830, have three children with her in the 1830s, her die (no trace of that), him remarry a Mary (no trace of that either) and have Bethia in 1836, then Mary die (no trace) and James remarry a different Susan Dean (unlikely in the extreme). We therefore conclude that Bethia's baptism got her mother's name wrong and should have said Susan, not Mary. James's mother was called Mary, which might explain the clerk's mistake. (The Bishop's Transcript has been checked - it is identical to the parish register.)

  2. England. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA): 1841 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class HO107; Piece 440; Book 10; Folio 22; Page 8, 6 Jun 1841.

    Address: Haley Green, Caddington, Hertfordshire
    James King, male, 30 [1806-11], Ag[ricultural] lab[ourer], born in county
    Susanna King, female, 35 [1801-6], not born in county
    Hannah King, female, 10 [1830/1], born in county
    Mary King, female, 6 [1834/5], born in county
    Bertha King, female, 4 [1836/7], born in county
    Thomas King, male, 2 [1838/9], born in county
    Edward King, male, 5m [1840/1], born in county
    ~ second household in same house ~
    Mary King, female, 65 [1771-6], Straw plaiter, born in county
    John King, male, 25 [1811-16], born in county
    William King, male, 7 [1833/4], born in county

  3. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1851 Census Schedules. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class HO107; Piece 1757; Folio 341; Page 8, 30 Mar 1851.

    Address: Caddington, Hertfordshire
    James King, head, married, male, 41 [1809/10], Farm labourer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Susan King, wife, married, female, 45 [1805/6], b. Wipsnade, Bedfordshire
    Mary King ,daughter, unmarried, female, 16 [1834/5], Platter of straw, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Bethiah King, daughter, unmarried, female, 14 [1836/7], Platter of straw, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Ann King, daughter, female, 8 [1842/3], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Lewis Ellis, lodger, married, male, 20 [1830/1], Farm labourer, b. Stretly, Bedfordshire
    Hannah Ellis, lodger, married, female, 20 [1830/1], Platter of straw, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Matilda Ellis, lodger, female, 1m [1851], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire

  4. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1861 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG9; Piece 1015; Folio 89; Page 4, 7 Apr 1861.

    Address: Aley Green, Caddington, Hertfordshire
    James King, head, married, male, 52 [1808/9], Ag[ricultural] lab[ourer], b. St Albans, Hertfordshire
    Susan King, wife, married, female, 55 [1805/6], Straw plaiter, b. Whipsnade, Bedfordshire
    Bethia King, daughter, unmarried, female, 24 [1836/7], Bonnet sewer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Edward King, son, unmarried, male, 20 [1840/1], Ag[ricultural] lab[ourer], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Ann King, daughter, unmarried, female, 18 [1842/3], Bonnet sewer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Leticia King, granddaughter, female, 1m [1861], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire

  5. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1871 Census Schedules. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG10; Piece 1568; Folio 28; Page 15, 2 Apr 1871.

    Address: Aley Green (listed immediately after "The Boot"), Caddington, Hertfordshire
    William Moss, head, married, male, 33 [1837/8], Lab[ourer], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Bethia Moss, wife, married, female, 34 [1836/7], Sewer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    James Moss, son, male, 8 [1862/3], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Susan Moss, daughter, female, 5 [1865/6], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Alberta Moss, daughter, female, 3 [1867/8], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Maude Moss, daughter, female, 1 [1869/70], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Ellen Moss, daughter, female, 8mo [1870], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire

  6. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1881 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands: . (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG11; Piece 1653; Folio 136; Page 4, 3 Apr 1881.

    Address: Aley Green, Caddington, Hertfordshire
    William Moss, head, married, male, 42 [1838/9], Ag[ricultural] Lab[ourer], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Bethia Moss, wife, married, female, 44 [1836/7], Bonnet Sewer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Victoria A. Moss, daughter, female, 13 [1867/8], Bonnet Sewer, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Alice M.M. Moss, daughter, female, 11 [1869/70], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Walter A. Moss, son, male, 9 [1891/2], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Prince L. Moss, son, male, 6 [1894/5], Scholar, b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    William A. Moss, son, male, 4 [1896/7], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire
    Bethia Moss, daughter, female, 2 [1898/9], b. Caddington, Hertfordshire

  7. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1891 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG12; Piece 1274; Folio 59; Page 38, 5 Apr 1891.

    Address: 146 Chapel Street, Luton, Bedfordshire
    Five or more rooms occupied
    William Moss, head, married, male, 53 [1837/8], Agricultural Laborer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Bertha Moss, wife, married, female, 55 [1835/6], employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Susanah Moss, daughter, single, female, 25 [1865/6], Hat Sewer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Alice M. Moss, daughter, single, female, 21 [1869/70], Hat Sewer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Ellen S. Moss, daughter, single, female, 20 [1870/1], Hat Sewer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Walter B. Moss, son, male, 18 [1872/3], General Laborer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Prince L. Moss, son, male, 16 [1874/5], Agricultural Laborer, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    William A. Moss, son, male, 14 [1876/7], Errand Boy, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Bethia Moss, daughter, female, 12 [1878/9], Scholar, employed, b. Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Thomas Lewis, stepson, married, male, 34 [1856/7], Rag & Bone Collector, employed, b. Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire
    Thomas Lewis, grandson, male, 5 [1885/6], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Arthur Lewis, grandson, male, 4 [1886/7], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Ethel Bert Lewis, grandson [sic], female, 3 [1887/8], b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Harry Lewis, grandson, male, 1 [1889/90], b. Luton, Bedfordshire

  8. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1901 Census Schedules: also for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG13; Piece 1519; Folio 104; Page 1, 31 Mar 1901.

    Address: Farley Green, Caddington, Bedfordshire
    Five or more rooms occupied
    William Moss, head, married, male, 65 [1835/6], Cowman on Farm, worker, b. Aley Green, Hertfordshire
    Bethiar Moss, wife, married, female, 63 [1837/8], b. Aley Green, Hertfordshire
    Bethiar Moss, daughter, single, female, 22 [1878/9], Straw Hat Sewer, worker, b. Aley Green, Hertfordshire
    Ada Moss, daughter, single, female, 19 [1881/2], Straw Hat Sewer, worker, b. Aley Green, Hertfordshire

  9. Death certificate, in General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration. (London: General Register Office).
    Registration District Luton
    1906 DEATH in the Sub-district of Luton in the County of Bedford
    No.When and where diedName and surnameSexAgeOccupationCause of deathSignature, description and residence of informantWhen registeredSignature of registrar
    155Fourth December 1906
    138 Farley Hill Luton UD
    Bethiar MossFemale71 yearsWife of William Moss
    General Labourer
    Hemiplegia
    Exhaustion
    Certified by J. Llewelyn Jones MD
    G. Davis
    Son in law
    In attendance
    40 Newtown Street
    Luton
    Fifth December 1906Edward Barnard
    Registrar
  10.   Luton Times and Advertiser, in United Kingdom. The British Newspaper Archive
    Friday 3 Jul 1885.

    LUTON BOROUGH PETTY SESSIONS.
    SATURDAY, June 27.
    Before W. Phillips, Esq. (chairman), J. Higgins, Esq., and J.J. Kershaw, Esq.
    LOW LIFE.
    ELLEN LEWIS, Dorset-street, was summoned for damage to a window, the property of Wm. Moss, 184, Farley Hill, June 23.
    Mrs. Moss said that about 8.30p.m. the defendant came to her house, and without and provocation, shoved her hand through the window, smashing it all to pieces. It cost 1s. to repair. Defendant "called her everything she could lay her tongue to," "the nasty blackguard," added the witness.
    Defendant said that she went there to ask for her husband.
    Witness said she did not on that night.
    Defendant said her husband lived there with Mrs. Moss's daughter.
    Mrs. Moss retorted that "she (defendant) lived with another man."
    Defendant said she had done some work, and went to ask her husband for 5s. for it, when Mrs. Moss called her a foul name.
    The Bench dismissed the case.

  11.   Luton Times and Advertiser, in United Kingdom. The British Newspaper Archive
    Friday 7 Dec 1906.

    DEATHS.
    Dec. 4, at 138 Chapel-street, Luton, Bithiah Moss, aged 71 years.