Importation oath of Patrick Hays and John Hays, Orange County, 1740



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Source:Waddell, 1902:38 [Need to verify that the transcriptions below are indeed from the Waddell version.
The Indepth Genealogist, Michelle Goodrum, 2005


Person:Patrick Hays (1)
Person:John Hays (20)
What is the difference between a "Transcription", an "Extract", and an "Abstract"


John and Patrick Hays took the Oath of Importation in Orange County Virginia, on the same date (22 May 1740). The oaths of importation, for a substantial number of settlers has been transcribed, extracted, or abstracted by various authors, and appears in various versions. Those versions are not necessarily identical, and some differ in significant ways both from each other and the original. In the original versions of these oaths following information is usually given, not necessarily in the same order

The Name of the Oath Taker
The names of the persons whose passage was paid by the Oath Taker
The date
The place of origin
The port of entry

Many of the abstractions that have been made include an indication of the relationship between the Oath Taker and the persons for whose passage he paid (i.e., wife, child, servant, etc). These relationships may not be present in the original documents, but have been routinely added by the transcriber, extractor, or abstractor. [1] Sometimes these additions are indicated by parenthesis ( ), or (better) square brackets. [2]Sometimes the distinction between an addition and original is (unfortunately) not made, creating the impression that the added information was present in the original document, when in fact it is an interpretation made by the transcriber.

Importation Oaths

From Source:Waddell, 1902

May 22, 1740, fourteen heads of families appeared at Orange Court to prove their importation... "from Ireland to Philadelphia, and from thence to this colony, at his own charges, and this is the first time of proving his and their rights in order to obtain land, which is ordered to be certified." [among the fourteen heads of families were:]
  • John Hays and his children, Rebecca [wife], Charles, Andrew, Barbara, Joan and Robert.
  • Patrick Hays [and his children] Francis [wife], Joan, William, Margaret, Catharine and Ruth.


  1. For convenience these terms are here referred to simply as "transcriptions" and "transcribers", unless a particular term is meant. There is, however, a precise distinction to be made between a transcript, an abstract, and an extract and the associated "transcriber", "extractor", and "abstractor". See:What is the difference between a "Transcription", an "Extract", and an "Abstract"
  2. The reason that square brackets are a better approach to indicating that something has been inserted, is because the original may have included parenthetical materials, and so using parenthesis might not indicate the presence of an addition. It is rare for original genealogical materials say from the 19th century or earlier, to make use of square brackets. So the presence of a square bract in a transcription is usually a good way to indicate an addition not in the original.