African American Research Guide


This is the beginning of a research guide for advice and resources for doing genealogical research involving African American heritage and slavery.


Where to Start

Internal Links

External Links

Tri-Racial Isolates

Tri-racial describes populations thought to be of mixed European, sub-Saharan African, and Native American ancestry. Although there is no consensus on how many such groups exist, estimates range as high as 200.

  • According to experts (including E.S. Mills), the best place to start for a genealogical study of tri-racial isolates in the Carolinas (and Tennessee and Virginia) would be a pair of articles done in the 1990s by :
  1. Dr. Virginia DeMarce, "Very Slitly Mixt': Tri-Racial Isolate Families of the Upper South---A Genealogical Study," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, 80 (March 1992): 5-35. DeMarce is former president of the National Genealogical Society and a long-time staff historian/genealogist at BIA, who holds a history Ph.D from UCLA-Berkeley
  2. Dr. Virginia DeMarce, "Looking at Legends---Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-racial Isolate Settlements," NGSQ 81 (March 1993): 24-45."
  1. Melungeon Resource Page
  2. Melungeon Links of Interest
  3. Wikipedia: Melungeon entry

Discussion Fora / Forums

  • African-Native American Genealogy Forum - Forum for discussing the genealogy and history of the Oklahoma Freedmen -- the African citizens of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Nations. These are the Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes.