The parish includes the hamlets of Eskholme, Pincheon Green, Topham and Wormley Hill.
Historically, Sykehouse was in the ecclesiastical parish of Fishlake in the lower division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill. From 1894 until 1974, Sykehouse was located in Thorne Rural District.
Sykehouse is a largely rural area containing a handful of small hamlets. Its northern border is marked by the River Went, while the River Don marks its eastern boundary. The New Junction Canal bisects the parish. It is said to be the longest village in Yorkshire, as it stretches for nearly along its main street. Sykehouse is the origin of the extremely rare Sykehouse Russet apple, an old English variety which was thought to have been lost, but was rediscovered growing in gardens in Oxfordshire and the Doncaster area in 1999.
Eskholme is a hamlet on the River Went, and is located at approximately 53° 39' North, 1° 0' 30" West, at an elevation of around 4 metres above sea level.
Pincheon Green is little more than a small row of houses, and is located at approximately 53° 39' North, 1° 2' 20" West, at an elevation of around 4 metres above sea level.
Sykehouse is the largest of the villages within the parish, and contains the parish church of the Holy Trinity. Most of this grade II listed building was built in 1869 by C. H. Fowler, using red bricks and a Gothic Revival style. The tower is older, having been built in 1721, while the font is fifteenth century, but this is presumed to have come from elsewhere. Other listed buildings include a red-brick and rubble barn, attached to Marsh Hills Farmhouse, and the farmhouse itself, which is early eighteenth century with twentieth century alterations. The village is located at approximately 53° 38' 30" North, 1° 3' West, at an elevation of around 4 metres above sea level.
Topham is a rural hamlet on the River Went, alongside a dismantled railway. Also, because of its situation on the river; it is liable to flooding. It is located at approximately 53°38′40″N 1°3′40″W, at an elevation of around 5 metres above sea level. The main structure of an early nineteenth century tower mill, which is now part of a house forms part of the hamlet, and the track to Balne Lodge and Balne Hall crosses the River Went at Topham Ferry bridge, a single-arched brick structure built in the early nineteenth century and little altered, although in poor condition.