Place:Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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NameRio Grande do Sul
TypeState
Coordinates30°S 54°W
Located inBrazil
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Agudo
Alegrete ( 1817 - )
Antônio Prado
Aratiba
Arròio Grande
Arvorezinha
Bagé ( 1811 - )
Barra do Ribeiro
Basílio
Bento Gonçalves
Bojuru
Bom Retiro do Sul
Butiá
Cacequi
Cachoeira do Sul ( 1819 - )
Camaquã
Campo Novo
Candelária
Canela
Canguçu
Canoas
Carazinho
Carlos Barbosa
Casca
Cassino
Caxias do Sul ( 1875 - )
Caçapava do Sul
Cerro Largo
Chuí
Crissiumal
Cruz Alta ( 1834 - )
Dom Pedrito
Encantado
Encruzilhada do Sul
Erechim ( 1909 - )
Erval
Espumoso
Esteio
Estrela
Faxinal do Soturno
Flores da Cunha
Frederico Westphalen
Garibaldi
Gaurama
General Câmara
General Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
Giruá
Gramado
Guaporé
Guarani das Missões
Guaíba
Horizontina
Ibirubá
Ijuí
Irai
Itapiranga
Itaqui
Jaguari
Jaguarão
Júlio de Castilhos
Lagoa Vermelha
Lajeado
Lavras do Sul
Marau
Mondai
Montenegro
Mostardas
Muçum
Nonoaí
Nova Prata
Novo Hamburgo ( 1800 - )
Não-me-Toque
Osório
Palmares do Sul
Palmas
Palmeira das Missões
Panambi
Passo Fundo ( 1800 - )
Pedro Osório
Pelotas ( 1780 - )
Pinheiro Machado
Piratini
Planalto
Porto Alegre
Porto Lucena
Quaraí
Restinga Seca
Rio Grande
Rio Pardo
Roque Gonzales
Rosário do Sul
Sanaduva
Santa Bárbara do Sul
Santa Cruz do Sul
Santa Maria ( 1797 - )
Santa Rosa
Santa Vitória do Palmar
Santana da Boa Vista
Santana do Livramento ( 1833 - )
Santiago
Santo Angelo ( 1707 - )
Santo Antônio da Patrulha
Santo Augusto
Santo Cristo
Sarandi
Seberi
Sobradinho
Soledade
São Borja
São Carlos
São Francisco de Assis
São Francisco de Paula
São Gabriel
São Jerônimo
São José do Norte
São Leopoldo ( 1824 - )
São Lourenço do Sul
São Luís Gonzaga
São Pedro do Sul
São Sepé
Tapejara
Tapera
Tapes
Taquara
Taquari
Tenente Portela
Três Coroas
Três Passos
Três de Maio
Tucunduva
Tupancireta
Uruguaiana ( 1839 - )
Vacaria
Venâncio Aires
Veranópolis
Viadutos
Viamão
Videira
Unknown
Aceguá
Ajuricaba
Alto Alegre
Alto Uruguai
Amaral Ferrador
André da Rocha
Anta Gorda
Arroio Mau e Candiota
Arroio do Meio
Arroio do Só
Arroio do Tigre
Augusto Pestana
Azevedo
Barra do Ouro
Barra do Quaraí
Barranco
Barro Vermelho
Barros Cassal
Barão do Triunfo
Barão
Boa Vista
Boca do Monte
Bom Jesus
Bom Princípio
Bonito
Boqueirão
Bossoroca
Brochier
Cacique Doble
Cadeado
Camargo
Cambará do Sul
Camobi
Campestre
Campo Bom
Campo do Meio
Campos Borges
Canoa Mirim
Capané
Capela Velha
Capela
Capivarita
Capão da Canoa
Capão do Leão
Carajá Seival
Caraá
Carlos Barbosa (Lageado)
Caseiros
Cati
Catuçaba
Catuípe
Caveiras
Cazuza Ferreira
Cerrito Alegre
Cerrito do Ouro
Cerro Branco
Cerro do Martins
Chapada
Charqueadas
Cidreira
Clemente Argôlo
Coimbra
Colinas
Colorado
Condor
Coronel Pilar
Costa da Cadeia
Cotiporã
Coxilha Grande
Coxilha do Fogo
Coxilha dos Piegas
Coxilha
Cristal
Criúva
Curral Alto
Cêrro D'Ouro
Delfina
Dilermando de Aguiar
Dois Irmãos
Dom Feliciano
Dom Pedro de Alcântara
Dona Otília
Dunas
Durasnal
Encruzilhada
Erebango
Ernesto Alves
Erveiras
Esmeralda
Esperança
Espinilho
Espírito Santo
Estação da Quinta
Estância Velha
Fagundes Varela
Farroupilha
Feliz
Flórida
Fontoura
Formigueiro
Forninho
Forqueta
Forquetinha
Fortaleza dos Valos
Galopolis
Glorinha
Glória
Gravataí
Hamburgo Velho
Harmonia
Hulha Negra
Ibaré
Ibicuí
Igrejinha
Iguatemí
Ilópolis
Imigrante
Ipiranga
Ipê
Itacurubi
Itapororó
Itapuca
Itaroquém
Itati
Ivoti
Jacuizinho
Jansen
Jarí
Jazidas
Joca Tavares
José Otávio
João Arregui
Kraemer
Languirú
Lindolfo Collor
Linha Nova
Manuel Viana
Maquiné
Maratá
Marcelino Ramos
Margem do Taquari
Mariana Pimentel
Mariante
Marques de Souza
Massambará
Maximiliano de Almeida
Miraguaia
Montauri
Monte Alverne
Monte Belo
Morrinhos do Sul
Morro Redondo
Morro do Furno
Morungava
Muitos Capões
Nova Alvorada
Nova Bassano
Nova Esperança
Nova Hartz
Nova Palma
Nova Petrópolis
Nova Sardenha
Padilha
Paim Filho
Palmeira
Pampeiro
Pantano Grande
Paraíso do Sul
Parobé
Passo Nôvo
Passo Raso
Passo da Areia
Passo do Graciano
Passo do Sobrado
Paverama
Pessegueiro
Picada Café
Piraí
Plano Alto
Ponche Verde
Porto Xavier
Portão
Povo Novo
Poço das Antas
Protásio Alves
Quinta
Quinze de Novembro
Quitéria
Rincão del Rei
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Pardinho
Roca Sales
Rolante
Rolantinho
Saicã
Salvador do Sul
Sananduva
Santa Clara do Ingaí
Santa Clara do Sul
Santa Cristina
Santa Eulália
Santa Maria do Herval
Santa Rita
Santa Silvana
Santa Teresa
Santo Amaro do Sul
Santo Amaro
Santo Antônio das Missões
Sapiranga
Sapucaia do Sul
Saraiva
Seival
Selbach
Serafim Schmidt
Serafina Corrêa
Sertão Santana
Silveira Martins
Sinimbu
Suspiro
São Brás
São Diôgo
São José do Hortêncio
São José do Patrocínio
São João da Urtiga
São Marcos (Uruguaiana)
São Marcos
São Martinho (Santa Maria)
São Martinho (Sao Martinho)
São Miguel das Missões
São Sebastião do Caí
São Simão
São Vendelino
São Vicente do Sul
Taquaral
Taím
Terra de Areia
Teutônia
Tiaraju
Toropi
Toroquá
Torquato Severo
Torres
Torrinhas
Tramandaí
Triunfo
Três Capões
Três Forquilhas
Três Pinheiros
Tupandi
Tupantuba
Tuparendi
Ubiretama
Unistalda
União
Upamaroti
Vacaiquá
Vale Verde
Vale do Sol
Vasco Alves
Vera Cruz
Vertentes
Vespasiano Correia
Vila Clara
Vila Ituim
Vila Nova
Vila Progresso
Vista Alegre
Xingu
Águas Claras
Árvore Só
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Rio Grande do Sul (; lit. "Great Southern River") is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fourth highest Human Development Index (HDI) in the country, and the third and last in the Brazilian South Region, with by far the highest standard of living. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine producing center in Brazil, the attraction is Italian gastronomy. Besides the European influence, the gaúchos, or inhabitants of Rio Grande do Sul, strongly cultivate the traditions of the Pampas – region of the border with Uruguay and Argentina – such as drinking mate (known as chimarrão drunk in special gourd cups), eating the typical barbecue, known as churrasco, and the traditional clothes are the bombachas (baggy trousers), boots and large hats. Although the majority of the population dresses non-traditionally, there is a widespread value for tradition and culture, which renders the image of "cultural zealots" sometimes attributed to the gaúchos.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

During the Brazilian Colonial period, the province of South Rio Grande was the scene of bloody wars: the dispute between Portugal and Spain for the Sacramento Colony and the Guarani Missions War. It was also a focal point for internal rebellion from the 19th to the early 20th century.

Guarani Wars

According to the treaty of Tordesillas, the region was to be part of the Spanish possessions in South America. However, the Spaniards were much more interested in their achievements in the Pacific Coast, where gold, silver, and gems, were quickly found. Even in the Atlantic coast, their attention was caught by the Plata estuary, where they built the seaport of Buenos Aires, in its right bank.

The Spanish occupation of the Southeastern region of the continent, consequently, followed the course of the Plata and its tributaries, especially the Paraná and Uruguay rivers.

The first Spaniards to reach the region that is now Paraguay, Northwestern Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), and Rio Grande do Sul, however, were not merchants or military conquerors; it was the Jesuit priests who established there, with the idea of converting the indigenous population to Catholicism. To that end, they founded villages known in Castilian as misiones or reducciones, and in Portuguese as missões or reduções, populated by Guarani Indians.

In the early 17th century, the Jesuits founded missions to the East of the Uruguay river, in the Northwest of modern Rio Grande do Sul.

The Missões were destroyed by slave-preying bandeirantes, between 1636 and 1638; however, in 1687, the Jesuits were back to the region, having (re)founded seven reductions – the Sete Povos das Missões. The region remained under Spanish sovereignty, though in practice the Jesuits operated quite independently, up to the late 17th century. But in 1680, the Portuguese founded Colônia do Sacramento on the Northern bank of the Plata River, in what is now Uruguay. War ensued, and was intermittent until the independence of Uruguay in 1828.

The logistics of defending Colônia against the Spaniards led to the population of Rio Grande do Sul's coastal region. In 1737, a fortified village (today the city of Rio Grande) was built at the entrance of Lagoa dos Patos. In 1752, a group of Azorean settlers founded Porto Alegre; to the west, Rio Pardo was also founded. Towards the middle of the century, Portuguese and Brazilians arrived to the west of the region, clashing against the Jesuits and the Guaranis. Up to 1756, the Guaranis fought back, under the leadership of Sepé Tiaraju, who was popularly canonized into São Sepé (Saint Sepé). However, the Portuguese and Brazilians eventually quelled the resistance, again destroyed the Missões, and the region turned definitely into Portuguese hegemony.

In 1738 the territory (which included the present state of Santa Catarina) became the Capitania d'el Rei and was made a dependency of Rio de Janeiro. Territorial disputes between Spain and Portugal led to the occupation by the Spaniards of the town of Rio Grande (then the capital of the capitania) and neighboring districts from 1763 to 1776, when they reverted to the Portuguese. The capture of Rio Grande in 1763 caused the removal of the seat of government to Viamão at the head of Lagoa dos Patos; in 1773 Porto dos Cazaes, renamed Porto Alegre, became the capital. In 1801 news of war between Spain and Portugal led to the capture of the Sete Povos and some frontier posts.

In 1777, the Santo Ildefonso Treaty granted the coastal region to Portugal, and the Missões to Spain; but, in practice, both regions were populated by Portuguese and Brazilian settlers. In 1801, the Badajoz treaty handed the Missões to the Portuguese; only the borders between modern Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul remained in dispute.

Cisplatine War

The districts of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande had been separated in 1760 for military convenience, and in 1807 the latter was elevated to the category of a "capitania-geral", with the designation of "Sao Pedro do Rio Grande", independent of Rio de Janeiro, and with Santa Catarina as a dependency. In 1812 Rio Grande and Santa Catarina were organized into two distinct comarcas, the latter becoming an independent province in 1822 when the Empire of Brazil was organized.

In 1816, the Portuguese captured Uruguay, which became a Province of Brazil (Província Cisplatina). This situation outlasted Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822; in 1825, however, Juan Antonio Lavalleja proclaimed the independence of Uruguay; war followed, until in 1828 Brazil recognized Uruguayan independence.

Ragamuffin War

Populating Rio Grande do Sul was a constant concern of the Portuguese. To that end, the metropolitan Crown distributed land in the form of enormous latifundia.

In those large latifundia, cattle raising was the predominant economic activity. The Guaranis, under Jesuit rule, had started raising cattle in the Missões. The destruction of the Missões left astray immense herds, which went feral. Thus the newcomers from São Paulo and Santa Catarina settled by re-domesticating these "gado xucro" herds.

The Azorean settlers, on the other hand, mainly introduced wheat crops in much smaller properties. Up to the beginning of the 19th century, wheat was the main export product of Rio Grande do Sul.[1]

However, the introduction of charqueadas in the Southern coast, following the 1777 drought in Ceará, opened new opportunities to husbandry, as from them on, instead of moving herds by land to São Paulo, cattle could be sold in the relatively nearby region of Pelotas, to be slaughtered and processed there, and further transported by sea to Santos, Rio de Janeiro, and other Brazilian harbours. The cheap jerky was commonly used as food for the enslaved laborers in other parts of Brazil.

Up to 1830, political unrest in Argentina and Uruguay favoured the jerky producers of Pelotas. But with order restored in these countries, competition by Argentinian and Uruguayan jerky producers became a concern. The jerky industry of the Plata was favored by the superior quality of Argentinian and Uruguayan pastures, by their better seaports, and by their use of free labor, instead of slavery. Consequently, the regional elites soon started to demand customs protection for the gaúcho jerky against the product of the Rio de la Plata; on the failure of the Imperial government to address those concerns, political demands of greater autonomy, and ideas of a federal relationship towards the rest of Brazil were put forth.[2]

These escalated into full rebellion in 1835. In 1834, the Imperial government issued an "Ato Adicional", allowing for elected Provincial legislative assemblies. The first gaúcha Legislative Assembly, inaugurated in April 1835, quickly confronted the Emperor-designated provincial governor. Rebellion broke out in the province on September 20, 1835; giving up hope upon Imperial redress of the situation, the gaúchos proclaimed independence of the Piratini Republic on September 11, 1836.

The ensuing Ragamuffin War (Guerra dos Farrapos) lasted ten years. The rebels stormed Porto Alegre, but were driven out from there in June 1836. From then on, the Empire was able to control most of the coastal region, achieving decisive strategic advantage from this fact. However, in 1839, the rebels were still able to invade Santa Catarina, where they proclaimed a Juliana Republic, in a federal relationship with Rio Grande do Sul (during the Santa Catarina campaign, Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels for a while before he returned to Europe and eventually became a hero in his native Italy). The Empire soon retook initiative, though, and from them on the rebels fought in the defensive.


In 1842, the Empire assigned a new Provincial governor and military commander, the Baron, later Duke of Caxias. The inability of the rebels to secure contact with the world through a seaport, the dwindling economy of the Province, combined with Caxias' superior capabilities as military commander, led to the fall, in 1843, of important rebel strongholds, Caçapava do Sul, Bagé, and Alegrete. Economically exhausted and militarily defeated, the rebels accepted Caxias' terms of surrender. A general amnesty was declared, the rebellious officials were incorporated into the Imperial Army, slaves enrolled in the rebel Army were freed. Additionally, the Empire imposed a 25% tax on foreign jerky imports.

The province suffered greatly in the struggle, but recovered quickly, not only due to the import tax protection, but mainly due to renewed instability in Argentina and Uruguay: Rosas' government in Argentina continually interfered in Uruguayan affairs until 1851, and Buenos Aires was blockaded by the French and the English from 1845 to 1848.

Conflicts with neighbouring countries

At mid-19th century, Rio Grande do Sul was repeatedly involved in war between Brazil and its neighbours. Those included war against Argentina and Uruguay (deposal of Juan Manuel Rosas, Argentinian dictator, and Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana, Uruguayan president, 1852) and intervention in Uruguay (deposal of Atanasio Cruz Aguirre, 1864). This, in turn, led to Paraguayan intervention, and the Paraguayan War, known in Portuguese as Guerra do Paraguai.

In the war against Rosas, 75% of the Brazilian troops were gaúchos. As the only Brazilian boundaries actually facing foreign armies able to project the Empire's power, Rio Grande do Sul and its gaúchos quickly developed a reputation as soldiers.

Paraguayan War

During this long and bloody war against Paraguay, Rio Grande do Sul remained usually a secondary front. But in 1865 a Paraguayan division invaded the state, occupying Uruguaiana by August 5. By August 16, troops of the Triple Alliance put siege to Uruguaiana, and by September 17, an ultimatum was delivered to General Estigarribia, commander of the Paraguayan division. Having no possibility of breaking the siege or defending the position, the Paraguayans surrendered, under conditions, the following day.

But if the territory of Rio Grande do Sul was spared most action, its dwellers provided a very significant part of the Brazilian troops: about 34,000 soldiers, more than 25% of the Brazilian army. This military characteristic of Rio Grande do Sul lasted long after the Paraguayan War: in 1879, of a standing army of less than 15,000, more than 5,000 were in Rio Grande do Sul. On the other hand, during the late Empire, more Brazilian generals were from Rio Grande do Sul than from any other province. In 1889, of 25 generals born in Brazil, four were from Rio Grande do Sul; and of the three born abroad, two were born in Uruguay but made their careers in Rio Grande do Sul.

Late Empire

Political agitation was frequent in Rio Grande do Sul, but no important revolution occurred after the Ponche Verde Treaty in 1845 until the presidency at Rio de Janeiro of General Floriano Peixoto, whose ill-considered interference with state governments led to the revolt of 1892-94, under Gumercindo Saraiva.

After the Paraguayan War, Rio Grande do Sul underwent important changes in its economy. Railways connected the countryside to Porto Alegre and Rio Grande. Together with the introduction of steam ships, this reduced the costs and duration of transportation, facilitating the province's exports. New cattle brands were introduced, and barbed wire was used to demarcate properties.

As a consequence, the population of the province doubled between 1872 and 1890, from 434,813 inhabitants to 897,455. This was partly due to immigration: about 60,000 immigrants, mostly from Italy, and, in lesser numbers, from Germany, came to Rio Grande do Sul during this period. Most of the Italians settled in the Serra Gaúcha, and most of the Germans in the valleys of the Jacuí, Sinos, and Caí, as small landed proprietors, and agricultural producers. In the area of German settlements, a messianic movement, the Muckers (German for false Saints) erupted in 1874, and was smashed by the Brazilian Army.

Also during this period, the Liberal Party established its hegemony over the province, meaning control of the provincial legislature, the National Guard in Rio Grande do Sul, and most of the municipal governments. Before the War of the Triple Alliance, the Conservative and Liberal parties had alternated in local power, following the national tendency. But, from 1872 on, the Liberals, under the leadership of Gaspar Silveira Martins, were able to retain provincial power, even when the Conservatives won at national level.

1893 Revolution

In this struggle the revolutionaries occupied Santa Catarina and Paraná, capturing Curitiba, but were eventually overthrown through their inability to obtain munitions of war. An incident in this struggle was the death of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, one of the most brilliant officers of the Brazilian navy and one of the chiefs of the naval revolt of 1893-94, who was killed in a skirmish on the Uruguayan border towards the end of the conflict.

1923 Revolution

In 1923, civil war again exploded between supporters of State President Borges de Medeiros and opposition linked to the Partido Libertador and Assis Brasil.

1930 Revolution

In 1930, State President Getúlio Vargas, after unsuccessfully running in the presidential elections against the candidate of São Paulo, Júlio Prestes, led a revolt against the Federal government, and succeeded in overthrowing it. This eventually led to the Vargas dictatorship in 1937 and the period known as the Estado Novo.

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