Place:Ceará, Brazil

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NameCeará
Alt namesCearásource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeState
Coordinates5°S 40°W
Located inBrazil
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Abaiara
Acarape
Acaraú
Acopiara
Aiuaba
Alto Santo
Antonina do Norte
Antônio Diogo
Apuiarés
Aracati
Aracoiaba
Araripe
Arneiroz
Assaré
Aurora
Baixio
Barbalha
Barro
Barroquinha
Baturité
Beberibe
Bela Cruz
Bitupitá
Boa Viagem
Brejo Santo
Cajàzeiras
Camocim
Campos Sales
Caninde
Capistrano
Caridade
Caririaçu
Cariré
Cariús
Cascavel
Catarina
Caucaia
Cedro
Chaval
Cococi
Coreaú
Crateús
Crato
Eusébio
Fortaleza ( 1500 - )
Frecheirinha
General Sampaio
Granja
Groaíras
Guaiúba
Guaraciaba do Norte
Ibiapina
Icó
Iguatu
Independência
Ipaumirim
Ipu
Ipueiras
Iracema
Irauçuba
Itaiçaba
Itapagé
Itapipoca
Itapiúna
Itatira
Jaguaretama
Jaguaribara
Jaguaribe
Jaguaruana
Jardim
Jati
Jucás
Juàzeiro do Norte
Lavras da Mangabeira
Limoeiro do Norte
Maracanaú
Maranguape
Marco
Martinópole
Massapê
Mauriti
Meruoca
Milagres
Missão Velha
Mombaça
Monsenhor Tabosa
Morada Nova
Morrinhos
Mucambo
Nova Olinda
Nova Russas
Novo Oriente
Oiticica
Orós
Pacajus
Pacatuba
Pacoti
Palhano
Palmácia
Paracuru
Parambu
Paramoti
Parangaba
Pedra Branca
Pentecoste
Pereiro
Piquet Carneiro
Poranga
Porteiras
Potengi
Quixadá
Quixeramobim
Quixeré
Redencão
Reriutaba
Russas
Saboeiro
Santa Quitéria
Santana do Acarau
Santana do Cariri
Senador Pompeu
Sobral ( 1700 - )
Solonópole
São Benedito
São Gonçalo do Amirante
São João do Jaguaribe
São Luís do Curu
Tabuleiro do Norte
Tamboril
Tauá
Tianguá
Trairi
Ubajara
Umari
Uruburetama
Uruoca
Viçosa do Ceará
Várzea Alegre
Unknown
Aiuá
Alcântaras
Algodões
Almofada
Altaneira
Amanaiara
Amanari
Amaniutuba
Amaro
Amontada
América
Anauá
Aquiraz
Aracatiara
Aracatiaçu
Arajara
Aranaú
Arapari
Araporanga
Arapá
Araquém
Ararendá
Aratama
Araticum
Aratuba
Aroeiras
Arrojado
Aruarú
Assunção
Banabuiú
Barra Nova
Barra do Sotero
Barreira
Barreiras
Barão de Aquirais
Baú
Boa Agua
Boa Vista
Bonhuo
Borges
Brejinho
Brejo Grande
Caio Prado
Caipu
Caiçarinha
Cajueiro
Canafístula
Cangatí
Canindezinho
Caponga
Cariutaba
Carnaubal
Carnaubas
Carnaubinha
Carrapateiras
Castanhão
Catolé
Catuana
Catunda
Caxitoré
Cemoaba
Chorozinho
Choró
Cipó dos Anjos
Coité
Cristais
Croatá
Cruz (Itapage)
Cruz (cidade)
Cruzeirinho
Cuncas
Curupira
Custódio
Daniel de Queiróz
Delmiro Gouveia
Dom Maurício
Dom Quintino
Domingos da Costa
Ematuba
Engenheiro José Lopes
Engenheiro João Tomé
Ereré
Farias Brito
Feiticeiro
Feitosa
Felizardo
Flamengo
Flores
Forquilha
Fortim
Gado
General Tibúrcio
Giquí
Granjeiro
Graça
Guanacés
Guaramiranga
Guassi
Guassossê
Guia
Gázea
Hidrolândia
Holanda
Horizonte
Iapi
Iara
Ibaretama
Ibiapaba
Ibicatú
Ibicuitaba
Ibicuitinga
Ibicuâ
Iborepi
Ibuguaçú
Icapuí
Icaraí
Icozinho
Ideal
Igaroí
Ingazeiras
Inhuporanga
Inhuçu
Ipaporanga
Irajá
Irapuá
Iratinga
Isidoro
Itacima
Itaguá
Itaipaba
Itaitinga
Itapebussu
Itapeim
Itapó
Itarema
Jaburuna
Jacampari
Jacarecoara
Jacaúna
Jacú
Jaibaras
Jamacarú
Jardimirim
Jijoca de Jericoacoara
Jordão
José de Alencar
Juatama
Juazeiro de Baixo
Jubaia
Justiniano de Serpa
Juá
Lagoa do Mato
Lameiro
Lima Campos
Livramento
Macambira
Macaoca
Macaraú
Madalena
Mandaú
Mangabeira
Mapuá
Maraguá
Mararupá
Marrecas
Matias
Matriz
Mel
Messejana
Miguel Xavier
Milhã
Miragem
Miraima
Mirambé
Missi
Missão Nova
Monte Sião
Montenebo
Morrinhos Novos
Mulungu
Muriti
Mutambeiras
Naraniú
Nova Betânia
Nova Floresta
Nova Fátima
Novo Assis
Ocara
Oiticia
Olho-d'Agua da Bica
Olho-d'Água
Pacujá
Padre Cicero
Paracuá
Paraipaba
Parajuru
Parazinho
Paripueira
Pasta
Patriarca
Pavuna
Pecém
Pedras
Pedrinhas
Penaforte
Pernambuquinho
Pessoa Anta
Pindoretama
Pirabibu
Pires Ferreira
Pitombeira
Pitombeiras
Ponta da Serra
Poti
Potiretama
Poço Comprido
Prata
Quimami
Quincoê
Quincunca
Quitaius
Quiterianópolis
Quixariú
Quixelô
Quixoa
Raimundo Martins
Riacho Verde
Riachão do Banabuiú
Rinaré
Roldão
Salitro
Santa Fé
Santa Luzia
Santo Antônio
Sapupara
Senador Sá
Serra do Félix
Serrote
Sitiá
Siupé
Suassurana
Sucatinga
Sucesso
São Bartolomeu
São Felipe
São Francisco
São Joaquim do Salgado
São Joaquim
São José das Lontras
São José de Solonópole
São João de Deus
São Sebastião
Sítios Novos
Tabainha
Tanques
Taperuba
Tapuiará
Targinos
Tarrafas
Tataira
Tejuçuoca
Timonha
Tipi
Trapiá (Forquilha)
Trapiá (Santa Quiteria)
Trici
Trussu
Tróia
Tucunduba
Tucuns
Tururu
Ubaúna
Ubiraçú
Uiraoponga
Umarituba
Umburanas
Umirim
Uruquê
Varjota
Vazantes
Ventura
Várzea da Conceição
Várzea dos Espinhos
Água Verde
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ceará is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is currently the 8th largest Brazilian State by population and the 17th by area. It is also one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of Fortaleza.

Literally, the name Ceará means "sings the jandaia". According to José de Alencar, one of the most important writers of Brazil and an authority in Tupi Guaraní, Ceará means turquoise or green waters. There are also theories that the state name would derive from Siriará, a reference to the crabs from the seashore.

The state is best known for its extensive coastline, with of sand. There are also mountains and valleys producing tropical fruits. To the south, on the border of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Piauí, is the National Forest of Araripe.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The territory of Ceará was originally inhabited by different Indian peoples, such as the Tabajara, Potyguara, Anacés, Kariri, Inhamum, Jucá, Kanindé, Tremembé, Paicaú and others, who had commercial relations with various European people, including the French, before the Portuguese decided to include the area in Brazil.

The first Portuguese plan for settling in Ceará dated from 1534, but the first attempts to settle the territory failed, and the earliest Portuguese settlement was made near the mouth of the Ceará River in 1603, by Pero Coelho de Sousa. He established the fort of São Tiago, but one year later he and his family abandoned Ceará because of a period of drought, a natural phenomenon that periodically afflicts the province, which the Portuguese settlers were ill-equipped to endure.

Portugal wanted to form a military base in Ceará to support the Portuguese operations in the war against the French. The first attempt with Pero Coelho de Sousa, in 1603, was not successful, and the French continued operating from Maranhão and Ibiapaba, where they had established a base in 1590. The Indians and French formed political and military alliances. In 1607, two Jesuits, Francisco Pinto and Pereira Figueira, arrived in Ceará with a mission to spy in the area of Ibiapaba. In October, that year Franciso Pinto was killed by the Indians and Pereira Filgueira returned with more information about the area and the French and Indian alliance.

In 1612, the French were successfully expelled from Ceará and Maranhão by a military expedition under the command of Portuguese Martim Soares Moreno. In the same year he constructed the fortress of São Sebastião on the same site as São Tiago, and one year later his left Ceará for Portugal. It was only in 1618 that Martim Soares Moreno returned to Ceará, and it is from this time that the Portuguese presence dates. This was restricted at first to the area of the Ceará River: Martim Soares Moreno made an alliance with the Indians of the Potiguara tribe. In 1631, Martim Soares Moreno left Ceará to help the Portuguese against the Dutch in Pernambuco and the fort of São Sebastião lost its importance.

At this time, what is today Brazil was hotly disputed by the Dutch and the Portuguese. The area was invaded twice by the Dutch, in 1637 and in 1649. In 1637, the Dutch and the Indians took the Fort of São Sebastião and dominated Ceará. The Dutch expanded their presence in Ceará and made alliances with different Indian tribes. In 1639, Georg Marcgrave made an expedition in Ceará, but in 1644 the Indians attacked the Dutch Governor of Ceará, Gideon Morris, the Dutch soldiers were are killed, and São Sebastião was destroyed.

There were no Europeans in the region between 1644 and 1649, but in 1649, before negotiations with the different Indian tribes, Matias Beck arrived in Ceará to explore silver mines of Maranguape. Good-quality silver was not found however. In this period the Dutch built another fort, by the banks of river Pajeú, and named it Fort Schoonenborch after one of their commanders. In 1654, the Dutch were expelled from Brazil; the Portuguese took Schoonenborch, changed its name to Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora de Assunção (The Fortress of Our Lady of the Assumption), and the different Indian tribes that had made alliance with the Dutch had to flee from Portuguese persecution.

In 1661, the Netherlands formally ceded their Brazilian territories to the Portuguese crown, ending conflict in the region. Ceará became a dependency of Pernambuco in 1680; this relationship lasted until 1799, when the Captaincy of Ceará was made independent.

The fight for Brazilian independence in 1822 was fierce in Ceará, with the area being a rebel stronghold that incurred vicious retribution from loyalists. The captaincy became a province in 1822 under Dom Pedro I. A revolution followed in 1824, the president of the province was deposed fifteen days after his arrival, and a republic was proclaimed. Internal dissensions immediately broke out, the new president was assassinated, and after a brief reign of terror the province resumed its allegiance to the empire.

Ceará was one of the first provinces of Brazil to abolish slavery.

The reign of Dom Pedro II (see Empire of Brazil) saw great advances in infrastructure in Ceará, with the commerce increasing by a large amount, and with gas lighting becoming almost ubiquitous.

The state of Ceará became a bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church in 1853, the bishop residing at Fortaleza.

Two railway lines running inland from the coast (the Baturité line from Fortaleza to Senador Pompeu, , and the Sobral line from the port of Camocim to Ipu, 134 miles), were built by the national government after the drought of 1877–1878 to give work to the starving refugees, and were later operated under leases. Dams were also begun for irrigation purposes.

The population numbered 805,687 in 1890, and 849,127 in 1900. In 1900 approximately five-sixths of the population lived on estates, owned no property, paid no taxes, and derived few benefits from the social and political institutions about them. Education was then confined almost exclusively to the upper classes, from which came some of the most prominent men in Brazilian politics and literature.

In the early 20th century the sandy zone along the coast was nearly barren, but the more elevated region behind the coast with broken surfaces and sandy soil produced fruit and most tropical products when conditions were favourable. The natural vegetable production was important, and included manigoba or Ceará rubber, carnahuba wax and fibre, caju wine and ipecacuanha. The principal agricultural products were cotton, coffee, sugar, manioc and tropical fruits. The production of cotton increased largely with the development of cotton manufacture in Brazil.

The higher plateau was devoted almost exclusively to cattle raising, once the principal industry of the state, although recurring droughts created an obstacle to its profitable development. The state exported considerable amounts of cattle, hides and skins.

Since 1960, the Orós Dam, comparable in size to the Aswan Dam has supplied Ceará with much of its water, and in 1995 construction began on the enormous Castanhão Dam, completed in 2003, which is able to hold 6.5 km³ of water.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Ceará. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.