Place:Pernambuco, Brazil

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NamePernambuco
Alt namesRecifesource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 354
TypeState
Coordinates8°S 37°W
Located inBrazil     (1891 - )
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Abreu e Lima
Afogados da Ingazeira
Agrestina
Alhandra
Aliança
Altinho
Amaraji
Angelim
Araripina
Arcoverde
Barreiros
Belo Jardim
Belém de São Francisco
Bezerros
Bodocó
Bom Conselho
Bonito
Buíque
Cabo
Cabrobó
Cachoeirinha
Camarajibe
Canhotinho
Carnaíba
Carpina
Caruarú ( 1800 - )
Correntes
Custódia
Escada
Exú
Flores
Floresta
Garanhuns ( 1800 - )
Goiana
Granito
Gravata
Inajá
Ipojuca
Ipubi
Itapetim
Jaboatão ( 1600 - )
João Alfredo
Lajedo
Limoeiro
Maraial
Muribeca dos Guararapes
Nazaré da Mata
Olinda
Ouricurí
Palmares
Palmeirina
Panelas
Parnamirim
Paulista
Pedra
Pesqueira
Petrolina
Petrolândia
Pontas de Pedra
Poção
Quipapá
Recife ( 1500 - )
Ribeirão
Salgueiro
Sanharó
Santa Cruz do Capibaribe
Santa Maria da Boa Vista
Serra Talhada
Serrita
Sertânia
São Bento do Una
São Caitano
São José da Laje
São José do Belmonte
São José do Egito
São Vicente Ferrer
Tabira
Tacaratu
Tamandaré
També
Timbaúba
Triunfo
Vertentes
Vicência
Vitoria de Santo Antão
Águas Belas
Island
Itamaracá
Unknown
Afrânio
Alagoinha
Alto Bonito
Ameixas
Apoti
Araçoiaba
Barra de Guabiraba
Barra do Brejo
Barra do Chata
Barra do Jardim
Batateira
Belém de Maria
Bengalas
Bentevi
Betânia
Bizarra
Bom Jardim
Brejinho
Brejo da Madre de Deus
Brejão
Buenos Aires
Bôa Vista
Cabanas
Cabo de Santo Agostinho
Caetés
Caldeirões
Calumbi
Calçado
Camaragibe
Camocim de São Félix
Camutanga
Capacaça
Capoeiras
Caraibas
Carapotós
Caricé
Carimã
Carnauberia da Penha
Carneiro
Carqueja
Casinhas
Catende
Catimbau
Chã Grande
Chã de Alegria
Cimbres
Claranã
Condado
Cortês
Couro d'Antes
Cruanji
Cruzes
Cumaru
Cupira
Dormentes
Espírito Santo
Fazenda Nova
Feira Nova
Feitoria
Fernando de Noronha
Ferreiros
Frei Miguelinho
Gameleira
Glória do Goitá
Gonçalves Ferreira
Grotão
Guanumbi
Iatecá
Iati
Ibimirim
Ibirajuba
Ibiranga
Igapó
Igarapeba
Igarassu
Iguaraci
Ingazeira
Iratama
Itacuruba
Itambé
Itapissuma
Itaquitinga
Itaíba
Ituguaçu
Jabitacá
Jaboatão dos Guararapes
Jaqueira
Jataúba
Jenipapo
Joaquim Nabuco
Jucati
Jupi
Jurema
Juçaral
Lagoa Grande
Lagoa de Itaenga
Lagoa de São José
Lagoa do Carro
Lagoa do Ouro
Lagoa dos Gatos
Laje Grande
Laje de São José
Lajedo do Cedro
Livramento do Tiúma
Macaparana
Machados
Macujê
Manari
Mandacaru
Mandaçaia
Maranguape
Mimoso
Miracica
Mirandiba
Moreilândia
Moreno
Moxotó
Murupé
Mutuca
Nossa Senhora do Ó
Olho d'Água de Dentro
Orobó
Orocó
Papagaio
Paquevira
Paranatama
Paratibe
Passira
Pau Ferro
Paudalho
Perpétuo Socorro
Pirituba
Pombos
Ponte dos Carvalhos
Poço Comprido
Poço Fundo
Praia da Conceição
Prazeres
Primavera
Propriedade de Una
Pão de Açúcar de Poção
Quixabá
Rainha Isabel
Riacho Pequeno
Riacho das Almas
Rio Formoso
Sairé
Salgadinho
Salobro
Saloá
Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde
Santa Cruz
Santa Filomena
Santa María do Cambucá
Santa Terezinha
Santana de São Joaquim
Santo Agostinho
Santo Antônio das Queimadas
Santo Antônio dos Palmares
Santo Antônio
Serra do Vento
Sertãozinho de Baixo
Siriji
Sirinhaém
Solidão
Surubim
São Benedito do Sul
São Joaquim do Monte
São José da Coroa Grande
São José
São João
São Lourenço da Mata
São Pedro
São Sebastião da Barra
Tacaimbó
Tamboatá
Tapiraim
Taquari Tereino
Taquaritinga do Norte
Taracatu
Tejucupapo
Terezinha
Terra Nova
Tigre
Timorante
Toritama
Tracunhaém
Trapiá
Trindade
Tupanatinga
Tupaoca
Tuparetama
Upatininga
Urucuba
Uruçu-Mirim
Venturosa
Verdejante
Viração
Volta
Xexéu
Xucuru
Água Fria
Água Prêta
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco also includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. In 1982 the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a Historical and Cultural Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have Portuguese architecture, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture. The proximity of the Equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C (79 °F).

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Originally inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia (or "New Lusitania") in 1535.

Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu.


Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies (the other notable one being São Vicente). With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills (engenho) were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar; in the 1640s, more than 24,000 tons of sugar were exported to Amsterdam alone. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples, especially the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enlslaved Africans from the late 17th century. Some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares.

In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch. The occupation was strongly resisted and the Dutch conquest was only partially successful. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, and soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states. The Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares important, but they were unsuccessful. Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, count of Nassau, was appointed as ruler of the Nieuw Holland (Dutch colonization enterprise in Brazil).


Nassau's government built Vitória or The Victore (Recife) on delta islands, which have similarities to Salvador's topography. This moved the political focus from Olinda to Recife. Nassau's Dutch administration was noted for advancements in urbanism, culture, and science. The Dutch legacy is still recognizable in Pernambuco's people, accent and architecture.

The Portuguese reconquered Recife in 1654 and Olinda regained its status of political center. However, Recife remained the commercial /port city. If the Dutch were gone, however, the threat of the now unified quilombo of Palmares remained. In spite of a treaty negotiated in 1678 with its ruler Ganga Zumba, a war between the two remained. Zumbi who became ruler following the peace treaty and later repudiated it, fought the Portuguese government until 1694 when soldiers brought from the south eventually defeated him.

In 1710 the Mascate War took place in Pernambuco. This conflict set the mascates (traveling salesman) from Recife against the establishment hosted in Olinda and led by the Senhores de Engenho (owners of the sugar mills, literally: sugar mill lords).


Pernambuco was the site of the most important rebellions and insurrections in Brazilian history, especially in the 19th century.

1817 was the year of the Pernambucan Revolution, a republican separatist movement which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Pernambuco. The main cause of the revolution was dissatisfaction with the colonial administration. The republic was declared on 7 March 1817. After military intervention, the secession ended on 20 May 1817. The republic's flag is the current flag of Pernambuco.

As a reaction to the Emperor Dom Pedro I dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, the Confederation of the Equator was set up on 2 July 1824. The Confederation was another separatist movement which encompassed the provinces of Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Ceará. On 29 November 1824, the Confederation's forces capitulated to the Imperial army.

Pernambuco was the site of the brief liberal republican Praieira revolt in 1848, which was Brazil's response to the European year of failed liberal revolutions. Deodoro da Fonseca, the marshal who crushed the revolt, much later overthrew Emperor Pedro II, and served as the first president of the Brazilian republic.

Dutch occupation

In the 17th century, the Netherlands was experiencing a surge of freedom and progress, free from the anchors of delay that lingered in other parts of America. Its society, its economy and the arts (which included paintings of great beauty and high artistic level) experienced the benefits of modern capitalism, driven by the ambition of a powerful bourgeoisie. A symbolic expression of this new economy was a branch of the Dutch West India Company – that would be called a transnational corporation today – which had influence throughout the world and controlled much of the trade between East and West. A Board of nineteen members appointed Prince Johan Maurits, Count of Nassau, Governor of Pernambuco. It was an auspicious choice for Northeast, because he was a lover of the arts, a versatile and competent talent, with a deep interest in the New World. In 1637 he opened his government guidelines quite different from those of the Portuguese colonists, declaring "Freedom of Religion and Trade". His entourage contained traders, artists, planners, German and Dutch citizens. He was accompanied by six painters, including Jonh Post and Albert Eckhout. Nassau also created an environment of Dutch religious tolerance, new to Portuguese America and irritating to his Calvinist associates. Nassau was the first to replace sugar production monoculture with an economic polyculture.

Jewish immigration

Under Dutch rule, Jewish culture developed in Recife. Many Ocean Jews had sought refuge in the Netherlands. The Jewish community, especially the Sephardim, were established and would spread to the northern Americas. There are records that in 1636 a synagogue was being built in the city. Many Dutch Jews were linked to commercial activities of the East Islands Company, which naturally sent them to the New World. A Jewish scholar from Amsterdam, Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, arrived in Recife in 1642, becoming the first rabbi on Brazilian soil and on the continent. In 1643, three years after the Portuguese regained the crown in the metropolis, Father António Vieira – frowned upon, persecuted by the Inquisition and admirer of Aboab – recommended the King of Portugal occupy the capital of the New Christian and Jewish immigrants to help the depressed Portuguese finances

In 1630, Indian West Islands Company once again turned its interest to the Captaincies of the Dutch colony in the Americas. Due to the [Iberian Union] (1580 a 1640), the Dutch Republic (which was dominated by Spain, but later became independent) saw in Pernambuco the opportunity to strike Spain and to compensate for the loss due to the failure of Dutch management. In 26 December 1629, a squad with 66 vessels and 7280 men left São Vicente, Cape Verde, heading to Pernambuco.

Nowadays, it is credited that the majority of the inhabitants of the pernambuco's agreste has some Dutch ancestry.

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