Ingleby Barwick is a large private residential housing estate and civil parish built on what was the southern perimeter of Thornaby airfield in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. In 2011, the population was 20,378 which was an increase of 3.9% from the 2001 figure of 19,600. The estate is enclosed by water to the west, north and east. It was officially opened in 1981 by the mayor of Langbaurgh.
Prior to the creation of Teesside and Stockton-on-Tees unitary authority in 1974, Ingleby Barwick was located in Middlesbrough Rural District from 1894 until 1932 and in Stokesley Rural District from 1932 until 1974. Historically, it was located in the ecclesiastical parish of Stainton in the Langbargh Wapentake. It was in the Stockton Registration District until 1875 and in the Middlesbrough Registration District after that.
Although the development of Ingleby Barwick, as the housing estate which is present today, did not start until the late 1970s, the land has been occupied for thousands of years. Ingleby Barwick has a ceremonial Coat of Arms. The arms contain a representation of the three rivers that run around Ingleby Barwick. It also depicts mill-rinds which are an historical link to the Turner family, who used to own the land which now forms Ingleby Barwick. The crest shows a Teal bird which refers to a horse named Teal, trained at Middleham by Captain Neville Crump, which won the Grand National in 1952.
There are traces of human occupation from as far back as the Stone Age. Work at Quarry farm has discovered prolific concentrations of multi period flintwork along the South Bank of the River Tees in this area. Traces of Iron Age field patterns were discovered, also at Quarry Farm. A salvage excavation was carried out in the Windmills Fields area of the town at the end of 1996. Five individual burials were found along with a wooden cist, these finds were accompanied by objects containing stone, jet and copper alloy of high status. This site was considered of European significance as it threw new light on the settlement of the area in the Bronze age and highlighted a change in tradition of burial traditions and trade networks at this time. Roman settlement is also apparent in the town and a Roman Villa circa 200 AD, perhaps the most northerly in UK, was excavated in part. This has been preserved as a grassed area in The Forum area of Ingleby Barwick. The "official" report on the excavation was published in 2013 with the title "A Roman Villa at the Edge of Empire" ( ISBN 978-1-902771-90-8 )
The name Ingleby Barwick is derived from both Viking and Saxon place names. Ingleby is derived from Old Norse Englar+by and means 'farmstead or village of the English man', Barwick is Saxon in origin, Bere is Saxon for barley and Wick means farm. This suggests that the area was affected by both the Viking and Saxon invasions.It may have been that until the 17th century, Ingleby and Barwick were two separate places. After the Norman invasion The Manor of Barwick was given to Robert Malet the son of William Malet, King William's great chamberlain. In the 13th century the land was owned by the Priors of Guisborough & Jervaulx until the dissolution of monasteries. Between the 14th and 16th centuries landowners included the Percys of Northumberland and the Parrs of Nottingham. The Middle Ages are considered to have ended with the Renaissance in the mid 15th century
Early Modern history
In the 17th century the Manor of Barwick was sold to Sir Thomas Lynch, Governor of Jamaica and then to Sir William Turner of Kirkleatham. The land remaining in the ownership of the Turner's, with profits from the land used to support the free school and hospital at Kirkleatham, until it was sold in the 19th century.
Ingleby Barwick is listed as being a township in the parish of Stainton in 1887. Its population was given as 132. During this time the land was sold off by the Turner estate.
During the Second World War Ingleby Barwick stood near to the south-western perimeter of Thornaby Airfield and a number of aircraft crashed where Ingleby Barwick housing estate now stands. On 11 June 1940 a Coastal Command Lockheed Hudson crashed at Quarry Farm killing the four crew after the bomb load exploded on crashing. On 28 April 1941 a Bristol Blenheim crashed at Barwick Lane killing all three crew. On 18 December 1941 a Lockheed Hudson stalled soon after take off and crashed into Quarry Farm killing the five crew and four civilians. On 4 September 1942 a Lockheed Hudson crashed at Myton House Farm killing the four crew. The last aircraft accident was a Photo Reconnaissance de Havilland Mosquito which was attempting to land at Thornaby on one engine and crashed into land which is now home to Ingleby Mill School on 11 November 1943 killing both crew members; there is now a stone marking the crash site.
In 1969 Yarmside Holdings bought land for housing and the first houses were built at Lowfields in the late 1970s.
Since then there has been a major undertaking to build new housing and at one time Ingleby Barwick was reputed to be the largest private housing estate in Europe.