The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes. The Dauphiné was originally the County of Albon, but the counts took the title Dauphin (dolphin), from which the region gets its name. It became a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century.
The Dauphiné is best known for its transfer from the last non-royal Dauphin (who had great debts and no direct heir) to the King of France in 1349. The terms of the transfer stipulated that the heir apparent of France would henceforth be called le Dauphin, which indeed remained the case until the end of the monarchy in 1830. The transfer terms also included significant autonomy and tax exemption for the Dauphiné region, most of which it retained only until 1457, though it remained an imperial state until the French Revolution.