Place:Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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NameYunnan
Alt namesNan-chaosource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 350
Nanzhaosource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 351
Yun-nansource: Family History Library Catalog
Yün-nansource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 360
TypeProvince
Coordinates24.0°N 101.0°E
Located inPeople's Republic of China
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Taihezhen
Inhabited place
Ameng
Anning
Baimakou
Bangda
Baoshan
Binchuan
Cangyuan
Caojian
Changning
Changputong
Chengjiang
Chuxiong
Dadugang
Daguan
Dali
Danfengzhen
Dashutang
Daxingzhai
Dayakou
Dayao
Dazhiba
Dutianjie
Dêqên
Enle
Eryuan
Eshan
Fangniu
Fengqing
Fugong
Fule
Fumin
Funing
Fuyuan
Gejiu
Gengma
Gongshan
Guangnan
Guyin
Hekou
Hekoujie
Heqing
Honghe
Hongmendu
Hongmenkou
Huaning
Huitongqiao
Huize
Hujie
Jianchuan
Jiangbian
Jiangbianzhai
Jiangcheng
Jiangdi
Jiangdihe
Jiangxi
Jianshui
Jingdong
Jingjiang
Jinjiangjie
Jinning
Jinping
Judian
Jushiguan
Kaiyuan
Kangpu
Kunming
Lagedu
Lagu
Lancang
Lanping
Laochang
Laocheng
Lianghe
Lijiang City
Lincang
Liuhejie
Liuku
Longchuan
Longgang
Longling
Ludian
Ludonghe
Lufeng
Luliang
Lunan
Luoci
Luoping
Luxi
Luzhang
Machangfu
Maguan
Majie
Malizhen
Manban
Manbian
Mandun
Mase
Mengban
Mengbang
Menggu
Menghai
Menghun
Mengka
Menglian
Mengwang
Mengzhe
Mengzhi
Mengzi
Midu
Mile
Mojiang
Mouding
Nalong
Nanhua
Nanma
Niujie
Niujingjie
Nixi
Nuanli
Pianjiao
Pinghe
Pingzhai
Pu'erdu
Pudi
Puduhe
Puer
Pumei
Qiaojia
Qiaotou
Qiubei
Qujing
Reshuitang
Sanjie
Shanggaixin
Shangyun
Shanmulong
Shideng
Shigu
Shiping
Shuangbai
Shuangjiang
Shuangjiangqiao
Shuijing
Sichuanzhai
Simao
Songming
Taipingchang
Tangdan
Tangfang
Tengchong
Tongguan
Tonghai
Waao
Wandingzhen
Wangjiashao
Weishan
Weixi
Weiyuan
Wenniu
Wenshan
Wuding
Xiagaixin
Xiangyun
Xiaoazhang
Xiaolongtan
Xiaozhongdian
Xicheng
Xijialong
Xin'ansuo
Xinchang
Xinjie
Xinping
Xinzha
Xinzhai
Xuanwei
Yahagong
Yanfeng
Yangjie
Yanshan
Yanxing
Yanzijiao
Yaoan
Yichexun
Yiliang
Yilong
Yimen
Yingpan
Yingpanjie
Yinyuan
Yipinglang
Yiwu
Yongning
Yongping
Yongren
Yongshan
Yongsheng
Yuanjiang
Yuanmou
Yuanyang
Yun Xian
Yunlong
Yuxi
Zhage
Zhanyi
Zhaotong
Zhaxi
Zhenkang
Zhenxiong
Zhenyuan
Zhiziluo
Zhongcheng
Zhongdian
Zhongheying
Zili
Unknown
Dehong Dai and Jingpo
Diqing Tibetan
K'un-ming Shih
T'eng-ch'ung Hsien
Xishuangbanna Dai
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Yunnan () is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in Southwest China, the province spans approximately and has a population of 45.7 million (as of 2009). The capital of the province is Kunming, formerly also known as Yunnan. The province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, and the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the countries Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar.

Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as . Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has perhaps 17,000 or more.[1] Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead, zinc and tin are the largest in China, and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel.

The Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD. Nanzhao was multi-ethnic, but the elite most-likely spoke a northern dialect of Yi. The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China. As with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Bai, Hani, Zhuang, Dai and Miao.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistory

The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures.

Pre-Nanzhao period

Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian. The Chu general Zhuang Qiao (庄蹻) entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion.


In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan. The Han–Dian wars began under Emperor Wu. He dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang (郭昌) south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties. The commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning. Another county was called "Yunnan", probably the first use of the name. To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India, Emperor Wu also sent to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way". By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly. The local people used bronze tools, plows and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai. They lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese.

During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong. The dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes. His seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore.

International trade flowed by din of Yunnan.

In the 4th century, northern China was largely overrun by nomadic tribes from the north. In the 320s, the Cuan clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian, then known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years.

Nanzhao period

Before the rise and dominance of the Nanzhao Kingdom around Yunnan in the eighth century, many local tribes, clans, and other groups sprang up. Around Lake Erhai, namely, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengzi, Yuexi, Langqiong, Dengdan, Shilling, and Mengshe. Zhao was an indigenous non-Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five; therefore given the new, larger context, it was called Nanzhao (Southern Kingdom).

By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge, the fourth king of Nanzhao, who was confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China and Tibet.

By the 750s, Nanzhao had taken eastern Yunnan into its empire and had become a potential rival to Tang China. The following period inevitably saw conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao attacked and captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan.In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong, the regional commander of Jiannan (Sichuan), led a Tang campaign against Nanzhao. Geluofeng regarded the previous incident as personal and wrote to Xianyu to seek peace. Howerver, Xianyu Zhongtong detained the Nanzhao envoys and turned down the appeal. Confronted with Tang armies, Nanzhao immediately turned its allegiance to Tubo. The Tubo and Nanzhao agreed to be "fraternal states"; Geluofeng was given the titles zanpuzhong ("younger brother").The Nanzhao-Tubo alliance finally made Xianyu's expedition became a disaster.

Tang China did not give up after one failure. In 753, another expedition was prepared, but this was also defeated by Nanzhao. In 754, the Tang organized an army of more than 100,000 troops that advanced to the Dali plain, resulting in only another slaughter. By the end of the eighth century, Tang was no longer a major threat to Nanzhao.

Nanzhao's expansion lasted for several decades. In 829, Nanzhao suddenly plundered Sichuan and entered Chengdu. When it retreated, hundreds of Sichuan people, including skilled artisans, were taken to Yunnan. In 832, the Nanzhao army captured the capital of the Pyu kingdom in modern upper Burma. Nanzhao also attacked the Khmer peoples of Zhenla. Generally speaking, Nanzhao was then the most powerful kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia, and played an extremely active role in multistate interactions.

In 859, Nanzhao captured Bozhou, and this event exacerbated the Nanzhao-Tang clashes. When the Tang governor of Annam took Bozhou back in the following year, Nanzhao, with the help of native peoples, occupied Hanoi as the Tang army moved to Bozhou. When the Tang forces returned, Nanzhao troops retreated from Hanoi but attacked and plundered Yongzhou. In the winter of 862, Nanzhao, allying with local groups, led an army of over 50,000 men to invade Annam again. It is reported that the Tang forces lost over 150,000 soldiers (either killed or captured by Nanzhao) in the two Annam battles.The autumn of 866 saw Tang victory in Hanoi and soon all of the Nanzhao forces were driven away. But Tang China had lost its ability to attack Nanzhao.

While Nanzhao was being defeated in Annam, it still occasionally attacked Sichuan. In 869, Shilong, the eighth king and the first empire of Nanzhao, invaded Sichuan. In 874, Nanzhao attacked Sichuan again.

In 902, Zheng Maisi, the qingpingguan ("Prime Minister") of Nanzhao, murdered the infant king of Nanzhao, and established a short-lived regime, namely, Da Chang He. Nanzhao, a once-powerful empire, disappeared.

Dali Kingdom

In 937, Duan Siping overthrew the Nanzhao and established the Kingdom of Dali. The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1253 after Dali King Duan Xingzhi defected to the Mongols. The Duans incorporated into the Mongol dominion as Maharajahs of the new province. The Mongolian prince sent to administer the region with them was killed. In 1273, Kublai Khan reformed the province and appointed the Semuren Sayid Ajall as its governor. The Yunnan Province during the Yuan dynasty included significant portions of Upper Burma after the Burmese campaigns in the 1270s and 1280s. But with the fall of the Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Ming dynasty destroyed the Yuan loyalists led by Basalawarmi in the Ming conquest of Yunnan by the early 1380s.

Ming and Qing dynasties

The Ming installed Mu Ying and his family as hereditary aristocrats in Yunnan.

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, large areas of Yunnan were administered under the native chieftain system. Under the Qing dynasty a war with Burma also occurred in the 1760s due to the attempted consolidation of borderlands under local chiefs by both China and Burma.

Yunnan was a destination for Han Chinese during Yuan rule. Colonizers moved into the area during Ming and Qing rule.


During the Ming dynasty, 3 million Han Chinese mostly from Nanjing (before the original Nanjing population was largely replaced by Wu speakers) and some from Shanxi and Hebei settled in Yunnan.

Although largely forgotten, the bloody Panthay Rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other local minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty caused the deaths of up to a million people in Yunnan. A British officer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons and that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with the practising of Islam. Loyalist Muslim forces helped Qing crush the rebel Muslims. The Qing armies only massacred Muslims who had rebelled or supported the rebels and spared Muslims who took no part in the uprising.

In 1894, George Ernest Morrison, an Australian correspondent for The Times, traveled from Beijing to British-occupied Burma via Yunnan. His book, An Australian in China, details his experiences.


The 1905 Tibetan Rebellion in which Tibetan Buddhist Lamas attacked and killed French Catholic missionaries spread to Yunnan.

Yunnan was transformed by the events of the war against Japan, which caused many east coast refugees and industrial establishments to relocate to the province. It assumed strategic significance, particularly as the Burma Road from Lashio, in Burma to Kunming was a fought over supply line of vital importance to China's war effort.

University faculty and students in the east had originally decamped to Changsha, capital of Hunan. But as the Japanese forces were gaining more territory they eventually bombed Changsha in February 1938. The 800 faculty and students who were left had to flee and made the 1,000 mile journey to Kunming, capital of Yunnan in China's mountainous southwest. It was here that the National Southwest Associated University (commonly known as 'Lianda University') was established. In these extraordinary wartime circumstances for eight years, staff, professors and students had to survive and operate in makeshift quarters that were subject to sporadic bombing campaigns by the Japanese. There were dire shortages of food, equipment, books, clothing and other essential needs, but they managed to conduct the running of a modern university. Over those eight years of war (1937-1945), Lianda became famous nationwide for having and producing many, if not most, of China's most prominent academics, scholars, scientists and intellectuals. Both of China's only Nobel laureates in physics studied at Lianda in Kunming.

Naturalists

Thousands of plant, insect and mammal species were described in the 19th century by scientists of the French National Museum of Natural History, Paris, in connection with permanent settlements of missionaries of the Missions étrangères de Paris in north-west Yunnan, among them noticeably Jean-André Soulié and Felix Biet. From 1916 to 1917, Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews led the Asiatic Zoological Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History through much of western and southern Yunnan, as well as other provinces of China. The book, Camps and Trails in China, records their experiences. Other notable explorers include Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti; George Forrest; Joseph Francis Charles Rock, who from 1922–1949 spent most of his time studying the flora, peoples and languages of southwest China, mainly in Yunnan; and Peter Goullart, a White Russian who studied Naxi culture and lived in Lijiang from 1940 to 1949.

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