Place:Bytom, Ślaskie, Poland

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NameBytom
Alt namesBeuthensource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-19
TypeCity
Coordinates50.35°N 18.967°E
Located inŚlaskie, Poland     (800 - )
Also located inKatowice, Poland    
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Bytom (Polish pronunciation: ; Silesian: Bytůń) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. It lies in the central-western district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union – a metropolis with a population of 2 million. Bytom is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Bytomka river (tributary of the Kłodnica).

The city has belonged to the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999. Previously it was in Katowice Voivodeship. Bytom is one of the cities within the conurbation of the Katowice urban area (total population approximately 2.7 million) as well as within a greater Silesian metropolitan area populated by about 5,294,000 people. The population of the city is 183,251 (June 2009).[1]

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Bytom is one of the oldest cities of Upper Silesia, originally recorded as Bitom in 1136. It received city rights from prince Władysław in 1254 with its first centrally located market square. The city of Bytom benefited economically from its location on a trade route linking Kraków with Silesia from east to west, and Hungary with Moravia and Greater Poland from north to south. The first Roman Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary was built in 1231. In 1259 Bytom was raided by the Mongols. The Duchy of Opole was split and in 1281 Bitom became a separate duchy, since 1289 under overlordship and administration of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Due to German settlers coming to the area, the city was Germanized. It came under control of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526, which increased the influence of the German language. The city became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 during the Silesian Wars and part of the German Empire in 1871. In the 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries, the city rapidly grew and industrialized. Before 1939, the town, along with Gleiwitz (now Gliwice), was at the southeastern tip of German Silesia.

The Bytom Synagogue was burned down by Nazi German SS and SA troopers during the Kristallnacht on 9–10 November 1938. During World War II, the Beuthen Jewish community was liquidated via the first ever Holocaust transport to be exterminated at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

In 1945 the city was transferred to Poland as a result of the Potsdam Conference. Its German population was largely expelled by the Soviet Army, and replaced by a Polish population, some of them repatriated Poles from the eastern provinces annexed by the Soviets. Some of the indigenous Silesian population remained.

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