Place:Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland

Watchers
NameBydgoszcz
Alt namesBrombergsource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-25
TypeCity
Coordinates53.15°N 18.0°E
Located inBydgoszcz, Poland     (1947 - 1998)
Also located inKujawsko-Pomorskie, Poland     (1999 - )
Pomorze, Poland     (1921 - 1939)
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Klein Bartelsee ( 1945 - 2010 )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Bydgoszcz is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 358,614 (June 2014), and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the eighth-largest city in Poland. It has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947.

The city is part of the Bydgoszcz–Toruń metropolitan area, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory, as well as the Medical College of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. It also hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, and Bydgoszcz Airport. Due to its location between the Vistula and Oder rivers, and the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.

Bydgoszcz is an architecturally rich city, with neo-gothic, neo-baroque, neoclassicist, modernist and Art Nouveau styles present, for which it earned a nickname Little Berlin. The notable granaries on Mill Island and along the riverside belong to one of the most recognized timber-framed landmarks in Poland.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

During the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya ("Bydgostia" in Latin), became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes. In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, mentioned in 1238. The city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, and incorporated into the monastic state of Teutonic Prussia as Bromberg. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń and the remainder of Kuyavia. King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights (charter) on 19 April 1346. The city increasingly saw an influx of Jews after that date. In 1555, however, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading.

During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions. The town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed completely and has since then remained a ruin. After the war only 94 houses were inhabited, 103 stood empty and 35 were burned down. Also the suburbs had been damaged considerably.

The Treaty of Bromberg, agreed in 1657 by King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland and Elector Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, created a military alliance between Poland and Prussia while marking the withdrawal of Prussia from its alliance with Sweden.

In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, and incorporated into the Netze District in West Prussia. At the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict.[1] Under Frederick the Great the town revived, notably with construction of a canal from Bromberg to Nakel (Nakło) which connected the north-flowing Vistula River via the Brda to the west-flowing Netze, which in turn flowed to the Oder via the Warta.

In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of his short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. With Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Nations, the town was returned to Prussia in 1815 as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen (Poznań), becoming the capital of the Bromberg Region. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, became part of the newly formed German Empire.

In the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway (Preußische Ostbahn) contributed greatly to the development of Bromberg. The first stretch, from Schneidemühl (Piła) to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851. The city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were ethnic Germans and 16 percent ethnic Poles (Polish minority in Germany), all holding German citizenships.

After World War I, despite Bromberg's German majority, it was assigned to the recreated Polish state by the 1919 Versailles Treaty. Now officially Bydgoszcz again, the city belonged to the Poznań Voivodeship. The local populace was required to acquire Polish citizenship or leave the country. This led to a drastic decline in ethnically German residents (German minority in Poland), whose number within the town decreased to 11,016 in 1926. In 1938, it was made part of the Polish Greater Pomerania.


During World War II, Bydgoszcz was occupied by Nazi Germany and annexed to the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia as the seat of the district or county (kreis) of Bromberg. However, the unilateral annexation was only a matter of fact, but a legal naught not recognised in international law. On 3 September 1939, shortly after the war started, the Bloody Sunday incident occurred; while both ethnically German and ethnically Polish civilian Poles died during the fighting, Nazi propaganda used the deaths of ethnically German Poles and named the incident Bloody Sunday as a pretext for lethal reprisals against the ethnically Polish Poles following occupation of the city by German troops on 9 September.

The history of Jews in Bydgoszcz ended with the catastrophe of World War II – the German invasion of Poland and the Holocaust. The city's Jewish citizens, many ethnically German, were sent to Nazi death camps or murdered in the town itself. Bromberg was the site of Bromberg-Ost, a women's subcamp of Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig (Gdańsk). A deportation camp was situated in Smukała village, now part of Bydgoszcz. An estimated 3,700 citizens of Bydgoszcz – Jews and non-Jews – died during the Nazi occupation.

In 1945 Bydgoszcz was occupied by the advancing Red Army. The German occupation of the city had ended and the reestablished authorities of Poland took over, also forcibly expelling ethnically German Poles. In the same year it was made the seat of the Pomeranian Voivodship, the northern part of which was soon separated to form Gdańsk Voivodship. The remaining part of the Pomeranian Voivodship was renamed Bydgoszcz Voivodeship in 1950. In March 1981, Solidarity's activists were violently suppressed in Bydgoszcz.

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