Person:Samuel of Bulgaria (1)

Samuel _____, Tsar of Bulgaria
b.940 Bulgaria
d.6 Oct 1014 Prilep
Facts and Events
Name Samuel _____, Tsar of Bulgaria
Alt Name[2] Samuil _____
Gender Male
Birth? 940 BulgariaHouse of Cometopuli
Marriage Abt 970 to Agatha Chryselios, Empress of Bulgaria
Other  Speculative child?: Princess Marija (3) 
with Agatha Chryselios, Empress of Bulgaria
Death[1][2] 6 Oct 1014 Prilep
Reference Number? Q270740?

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced , Old Church Slavonic: ) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014. From 977 to 997, he was a general under Roman I of Bulgaria, the second surviving son of Emperor Peter I of Bulgaria, and co-ruled with him, as Roman bestowed upon him the command of the army and the effective royal authority. As Samuel struggled to preserve his country's independence from the Byzantine Empire, his rule was characterized by constant warfare against the Byzantines and their equally ambitious ruler Basil II.

In his early years Samuel managed to inflict several major defeats on the Byzantines and to launch offensive campaigns into their territory. In the late 10th century, the Bulgarian armies conquered the Serb principality of Duklja and led campaigns against the Kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary. But from 1001, he was forced mainly to defend the Empire against the superior Byzantine armies. Samuel died of a heart attack on 6 October 1014, two months after the catastrophic battle of Kleidion. His successors failed to organize a resistance, and in 1018, four years after Samuel's death, the country capitulated, ending the five decades-long Byzantine–Bulgarian conflict.

Samuel was considered "invincible in power and unsurpassable in strength". Similar comments were made even in Constantinople, where John Kyriotes penned a poem offering a punning comparison between the Bulgarian Emperor and Halley's comet, which appeared in 989.[1]

During Samuel's reign, Bulgaria gained control of most of the Balkans (with the notable exception of Thrace) as far as southern Greece. He moved the capital from Skopje to Ohrid,[2][3] which had been the cultural and military centre of southwestern Bulgaria since Boris I's rule, and made the city the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Because of this, his realm is sometimes called the Western Bulgarian Empire.

Samuel's energetic reign restored Bulgarian might on the Balkans, and although the Empire was disestablished after his death, he is regarded as a heroic ruler in Bulgaria,

Samuel is considered also a heroic ruler in North Macedonia; (see the section Nomenclature).

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  1. Samuel of Bulgaria, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
  2. 2.0 2.1 SAMUIL, in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.