Family:Charles Antritter and Karoline Winterbauer (2)

Facts and Events
Marriage? 6 SEP 1874 Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany
Children
BirthDeath
1.
 
2.
 
3.
 
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21 SEP 1962
5.
1962
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21 MAY 1882 Lyon, France
15 APR 1967
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10 DEC 1890 Sioux County, Iowa
 

It was at an Easter morning church service that Charles and Karoline met and discovered they were from the same village and later, on September 6, 1874, they were married in Frankfort on Main, Germany.

Shortly after the birth of their first daughter, Caroline Elizabeth, they moved to Sulzfeld, Baden where their son, Charles David was born. In 1878 they moved to Lyons, France where three boys died in infancy. Marie Louise was born May 21, 1882.

May 26, 1885 brought the big venture of plans fulfilled for a home in America. Their final destination was to be Hull, Iowa where Louise Winterbauer Pfefferle, her husband David and Marie Louise Antritter had found a home in 1884. Mr. Antritter went back to Chicago, Illinois where he worked at his trade, went to night school to study english and applied for American citizenship. He returned to work at his trade and engaged in farming until in 1889 when he purchased a quarter section of land in Section one of Indian Lake Township, Nobles County, Minnesota. In the next year he constructed buildings and on January 1, 1891 he moved with his family into the new home. In late 1903 or early 1904 they moved to a new home in Round Lake across from the school.

From 1876 to 1890, there were seven children born to this union, Elise, Charles, Louise, John, and three sons who died in infancy. May 26, 1885 brought the big venture of plans fulfilled for a home in the United States of America with final destination at Hull, Iowa where Karoline’s sister Louise and her husband David had already found a home just a year prior. Karoline’s mother, Fredericka also came with them to America. Charles went back to Chicago, Illinois where he worked at his trade, went to night school to study English, and applied for American citizenship. He returned to work at his trade, a cabinetmaker, and engaged in farming until he purchased the northeast quarter of section 1, Indian Lake Township. He constructed buildings, and he and his family, moved into their new home on January 1, 1891. They remained there until 1903-1904 when they moved to a new home in Round Lake located across from the schoo

Charles died on Saturday, June 30, 1906 at the age of 57. Karoline died on Thursday, February 27, 1930 at the age of 78. Both Charles and Karoline are buried at the Round Lake Cemetery.

Children of Charles and Karoline: Elise(Caroline Elizabeth) was born on January 11, 1876 at Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany. Elise was 9 years old when she came to America with her parents. She met and married Curtis Morgan. They lived in the Round Lake area the remainder of their lives.

Charles David was born on September 18, 1877 at Sulzfeld, Germany. Charles came to Indian Lake Township as a teenager with his family in 1889. During the next few years, Charles worked on the farm when he wasn’t attending school. In 1896, he accepted a position in A. F. Diehn’s general store at Round Lake where he was employed as a clerk about one year. He then went back to his father’s farm where he made his home until 1900. The next two years he attended Highland Park College at Des Moines, Iowa. Charles was united in marriage to Louise Pfefferle, daughter of Jacob Pfefferle, of Rock Valley, Iowa on June 19, 1901. They were married in Indian Lake Township. They lived on the family farm for about one year, then, Charles entered the employment of W. C. Grant, then a general merchant of Round Lake. On February 1, 1904 he became the local manager for the John W. Tuthill Lumber Company at Round Lake.Charles was active in town activities and offices. He served as a trustee and as a president and as recorder of the village council. He was a member of the Modern Woodman’s Lodge at Round Lake. Children of Charles and Louise: Loren-born April 10, 1902, Ruby-born May 10, 1903, and Dorothy-born November 26, 1904. There were three sons born and died in infancy at Lyons, France.

Louise Marie was born on May 20, 1882 at Lyons, France. She came to America in April of 1884 with her Aunt Louise and Uncle David Pfefferle. Her parents would come to America a year later. Louise Marie worked as a dressmaker until her marriage. She grew up in the Sheldon and George, Iowa area. She married Philip Charles Horstman on September 7, 1903 at her parents home three miles north of Round Lake. This farm was later owned by Wilbur and Elsie Block. Philip was born on June 3, 1876 at Bagley, Wisconsin. He was the son of Henry and Katherine Horstman. He received his education in Wisconsin but started working on farms at a very young age. Later, he cam to Iowa and Minnesota and worked on farms here. Philip and Louise bought their 200 acre farm from Nels Langseth. It was located two miles north of Round Lake and is now owned by Kenneth Sather family. The lived and farmed there until their retirement. They had a dairy for many years, supplying the people of Round Lake with dairy products. Philip served on the school board and the elevator board. He was very interested in politics and was an avid reader. Philip died on June 25, 1954. Louise died April 15, 1967. They are both buried at the Round Lake Cemetery. Philip and Louise had six children. Emil was born on December 25, 1904. He married Margaret Zahn. He farmed the home farm in Indian Lake Township. Margaret was a nurse at the Worthington hospital. Carl was born October 28, 1906 and married Eugenia Salel. He was a veterinarian and she was a teacher. They lived in Collinsville, Illinois. Ralph “Ike” was born on December 28, 1910. He married Ann Siebrands. He w2orked for Standard Oil, entered the Navy, and later worked for the Siebrands Shows. Anne was a telephone operator. They had two daughters named Joanne and Pamela. They lived in Phoenix, Arizona. Katherine was born on March 14, 1913. She taught school in the local schools. She married Harry A. Tordsen who retired after 30 years as sheriff of Jackson County. They resided at Lakefield, Minnesota. Their three daughters are Eugenia of Minneapolis, Patricia of Thousand Oaks, California, and Carol of Kansas City, Missouri. Marguerite taught at local schools and in Germany and Minneapolis. She married Roy Hopkins whose career was in the Army. They resided in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Their two daughters are Vivian and Susan. Evelyn was a nurse and served in the Army in World War II. She later taught nursing at the University of Colorado. She married Dr. E. P. Montgomery. They reside in Greeley, Colorado. They have an adopted son named Hans.

John William was born on December 10, 1890 at Hull, Iowa When Charles Phillip (Karl) Antritter and Caroline Winterbauer Antritter came to America, they arrived at the Castle Garden Emigration Center. Their daughter, Caroline Elisabeth (Elise) Antritter Morgan was only 9 years old when she came to Castle Garden. Castle Garden was open from 1855 to 1890 un Ellis Island was opened. I was not even aware there was a Castle Garden until one snowy afternoon I spent visiting with my Uncle Stanley. Stanley is Stanley Beal, grandson of Harvey Beal and he learned about Castle Garden from Ruby and Dorothy Antritter. Below is information I've found on Castle Garden.

Castle Garden: The Forgotten Gateway

Today, Castle Garden swarms with tourists who come to buy ferry tickets for an excursion to the Statue of Liberty or Ellis Island. Only a few observe the stone walls that surround them; almost none go inside the modest exhibit gallery at the entrance to the castle. But those who pause within that quiet space will learn a startling fact: they are standing in a citadel that in bygone years was the great threshold to America for millions of migrants, a place where such travellers paused before journeying onward to new homes and livelihoods. Castle Garden is the true golden door to which poetess Emma Lazarus refers in her 1883 sonnet, "The New Colossus:" "Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the Golden Door!"

Castle Garden was established at a time when immigration affairs were left to the control of the states; the federal government concerned itself only with narrow questions of immigration as they arose, such as naturalization, sanitary conditions aboard ships, and the tabulation of foreign passengers entering American seaports.

The state most affected by immigration throughout the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century was New York. This phenomenon was due to New York’s position as North America’s busiest seaport during the heyday of European-American transatlantic shipping. Immigrants and goods bound for most American points passed through this hub of commerce and trade.

During Castle Garden’s years as an immigrant landing depot, 1855—1890, 8.2 million immigrants were received there. Contact the National Archives, which holds the ships’ passenger lists for the period, 1855—1890, to find information on ancestors who entered the country through Castle Garden. Research, however, can be difficult, as the records are still being indexed.

A Fortress Castle Garden, located at the tip of lower Manhattan in Battery Park, was constructed between the years 1807 and 1811 as part of a chain of harbor forts that could defend New York City against a naval attack. It was first known as the West Battery, but was renamed Castle Clinton in 1815 after George Clinton, the first governor of the state of New York.

In 1823, the U.S. Army withdrew from the fortress, leaving it to New York City authorities, which in turn, permitted private investors to take it over. These investors reopened it several months later as a center for social events with a new name: Castle Garden. But in 1855, the state of New York’s Board of Emigration Commissioners took the building over for immigration purposes and, in spite of a public outcry against concentrating immigrants in the city’s First Ward, opened the Castle Garden Emigrant Landing Depot on 3 August 1855.

Old and New Immigration Ellis Island and Castle Garden, the most prominent immigration stations in the history of the United States, present both differences and similarities. Representing two distinct periods in migration history, the two were central locations where immigrants could be brought directly from ships entering the port of New York.

Before August 1855, immigrants had been released at piers in different sections of the city. The State Board of Emigration Commissioners regarded this scattered landing of immigrants as a serious flaw in immigration policy, as it left the new arrivals vulnerable to criminals and crooked boardinghouse keepers.

In some ways, the immigrants themselves–and America’s response to them–define the two stations. Scholars have sought to define those who passed through Castle Garden as the "Old Immigration," and those who passed through Ellis Island (1892—1954) as the "New Immigration." These terms stem from the social and ethnic characteristics of the two groups. The Old Immigration was primarily composed of western and northern Europeans, a migration primarily of many Protestant denominations and Roman Catholics. The New Immigration was seen as a phenomenon largely emanating from eastern and southern Europe, and predominantly Roman Catholic, Jewish, and Eastern Orthodox. The first year in which the New Immigration exceeded the Old Immigration at U.S. ports was 1896.

Another feature that distinguished the two stations is that Castle Garden was administered by state authorities primarily to land foreigners safely, providing protection and assistance, including a labour exchange bureau, and to relieve the city and state from the expense of landing large numbers of immigrants; there was an element of charity in its philosophy. Ellis Island was administered by the federal government primarily to weed out undesirable or inadmissible aliens and return them to their countries of origin.

There are also important similarities between the two depots. Officials from both stations boarded ships entering the harbor and transported steerage passengers to their respective facilities; both provided medical inspections and registered aliens; both had procedures for uniting relatives and friends; both possessed ample facilities for detaining aliens; and both allowed missionaries and ethnic societies to aid immigrants.

In 1848, the State Board of Emigration Commissioners, created by the New York legislature in 1847, established a hospital and other buildings on Ward’s Island, a 255-acre island in the East River. The most important of these buildings were the Verplanck State Emigrant hospital, capable of holding 350 patients; the Refuge building for destitute women and children; and the New Barracks building for destitute male aliens.

The Ward’s Island Refuge and Hospital provided the Commissioners with necessary detention facilities; the opening of Castle Garden in 1855 concluded its goal of protecting all arriving immigrants and relieving New Yorkers of caring for destitute or sick foreigners. In addition, the Commissioners operated a smallpox hospital on Blackwell’s Island.

A Receiving Station Castle Garden was a fascinating place with a staff of about one hundred people, and run by a superintendent. Various departments carried out the daily grind.

The Boarding Department’s task was to send officers to board ships in New York bay, after they had passed quarantine inspection. Its clerks ascertained information, such as how many passengers were aboard the vessel, and how clean it was. When the ship docked, a New York City constable on "Castle Garden duty" and agents from the Landing Department transported the immigrants to the depot’s pier via tugboats and barges. Immigrants were then marched into the castle for medical examinations. Anyone found sick was put on a steamboat bound for Ward’s Island or Blackwell’s Island. Cripples, lunatics, the blind, and others who might become a public charge were only admissible under a bond.

Next, the immigrants were directed into the rotunda of Castle Garden, which was furnished with wooden benches. At any one time as many as 3,000 immigrants might be crowded in this area. Here the Registering Department clerks, divided into english and foreign language desks, interviewed the newcomers, recording their names, nationalities, old residences, and destinations.

After this was completed, the people were directed either to the railroad agents to purchase tickets to their destinations in the United States or Canada. Those temporarily or permanently settling in New York City or its environs were directed to the City Baggage Delivery, which forwarded their luggage to a local address.

Many immigrants had relatives and friends who had come to meet them at Castle Garden. The Information Department handled such reunions. Its staff was composed of qualified interpreters for German, French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Czech, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Portuguese, Swiss-German, Russian, and Latin.

The Forwarding Department, also in the rotunda, forwarded letters, remittances, and telegrams waiting for immigrants. The Letter-Writing Department included clerks versed in the various languages of continental Europe. Here, they wrote letters for immigrants who were often illiterate.

Another important service, the Exchange Brokers, changed all foreign money into American currency. An Employment Office, replaced by the Labour Exchange in 1867, helped immigrants find work upon their arrival to America. In 1871, for instance, work was found for 31,384 immigrants. The leading occupations for men and boys were cabinetmaking, shoemaking, baking, weaving, and gardening.

Another important service was that of the Boarding-House Keepers, who were strictly regulated. In 1867, there were seventy-six emigrant boardinghouse keepers allowed into Castle Garden. Each posted a full list of prices for room and board in English, German, French, Italian, and the Nordic languages.

Also within Castle Garden was a well-provisioned restaurant, as well as several bread stands and washrooms. In 1867, communication was improved when the Western Union Telegraph Company opened a branch office at the depot; a similar service was established at Ward’s Island in 1870.

The Ward’s Island Department handled applications for admission to Castle Garden’s institutions for the care and assistance of destitute and sick immigrants. The island’s main hospital was the Verplanck State Emigrant Hospital, supervised by a surgeon-in-chief. It provided treatment and care for those suffering from such sicknesses as apoplexy, asthma, bronchitis, typhus, meningitis, and hepatitis. In addition, there was an Insane Asylum on the island, whose physicians treated those suffering from dementia, melancholia, epilepsy, chronic alcoholism, and mental retardation.

Decline of Castle Garden After more than twenty years of operation, Castle Garden suffered a major disaster. On Sunday afternoon on 9 July 1876, a fire destroyed the building within the walls of the old stone fortress. Only buildings outside of Castle Garden’s walls survived. These were the Labour Exchange, a small hospital, and the intelligence office. The damaged was estimated at $40,000. In September, October, and November, the depot was reconstructed and the Commissioners were able to reopen it on 27 November 1876.

In the 1880s, the United States experienced an overwhelming wave of immigration; 1.4 million immigrants came from Germany alone. The pressure at Castle Garden was intense as the small station tried to cope with the added stress. Meanwhile, the federal government grew more and more concerned about the question of immigration. After the U.S. Supreme Court expressed the opinion that Congress should control immigration, Congress began taking steps that culminated with the closing of Castle Garden 18 April 1890. In spite of this abrupt finale, Castle Garden remained a legendary threshold to a whole generation of immigrants.

New York Daily Times, August 4, 1855, Page 1, an article reporting on activities at Castle Garden, newly opened as an immigrant depot by the New York Board of Emigration Commisisoners. The writer commends Castle Garden for barring "runners" and others who would prey upon and exploit new arrivals. But the writer also suggests the potential for corruption within Castle Garden, and names several points that would soon become notorious for fleecing poor immigrants of their savings--the weighing and transfer of baggage, sales of transportation inland, vendors selling snacks, etc. (The etchings shown here are not original to the Daily Times item, but have been included to illustrate the article.)

CASTLE GARDEN

New Emigrants are Treated on Landing Honored is that house which for generation after generation has served as an ornament, and in its old age commences a new corner of practical usefulness. And our venerable Castle Garden is very highly considered that, after half a century of service as a military rallying place and a fashionable resort for the peddlers of amusement, now when its walls are cracked and crumbling and all its early glory deserted, it is vouchsafed the privilege of granting a home to all humanity, as well as to the City, of which it is the gateway. In the old time, New York received LaFayette in Castle Garden with its most profuse hospitality; to-day hundreds of the countrymen of LaFayette come over from vine-clad France, and in Castle Garden receive the first welcome to America. So, after all, the change is not so very great. Instead of one ovation a year to some distinguished foreigner, henceforth there will be a perpetual ovation to thousands of foreigners and, whereas only straggling couples have heretofore promenaded the balcony and pledged their eternal troth, henceforth it is utterly given up to young and old, lads and lasses, old men and crusty maids to wander at will throughout it, talking about good old times and plotting for future revenue on Western prairies, or arranging for the service of the clergyman, and the quiet cottage and the babies that are to be born.

The new order of things is fairly inaugurated. We went down yesterday to see how it works.

Three ships loaded with emigrants arrived up from Quarantine, and it was a busy time all round. Compose yourself, reader, while we tell about it:

A high board fence, through which the eye can not peer, nor over which the most curious boy can climb—for it is thirteen feet high—shuts in the proper inmates and shuts out intruders; among the “cuts” are all emigrant runners. On Thursday several of these hopeful gentlemen dressed themselves in emigrants’ clothes and tried to gain admittance under the pretense of having been landed in company with those just arrived. But the dodge did not work. Others pleaded earnestly to get in to see a father or a brother, a sister or other relative, who was among the passengers. But they were too well known to palm themselves off on that pretense.

Yesterday’s few did not scruple to manifest their dislike by open demonstrations of hostility. Besides continually hooting at the employees of the Commission, as they passed in and out, they attacked one or two of them with stones. They went at Commissioner Garrigur so fiercely that he called the Police to his aid. Commissioner Kennedy drew a revolver upon them, which had the effect of cooling them somewhat. It is feared, however, the end is not yet. The Commissioners, and those under them, will go armed for the present, and will be ready for any emergency. These runners have sucked the life-blood of emigrants for so long that they think they have a right to it. And now, when upon a sudden “their occupation’s gone,” they feel as melancholy and dissatisfied with the world as do the liquor dealers where a Maine Law is honestly observed.

A policeman waved the leeches aside, and we presented our face at the raised opening of a narrow door. A word assured the porter, and we entered, registering our names where some score had preceded us, as is the rule for all visitors to do. Now passing the heavy door of old Castle Clinton—that was its name until 1823—let us push straight through to the opposite side and out upon the wharf. Here is a busy time. A heavily-loaded emigrant ship has just anchored in the stream, and the barge Pilgrim, towed by a steamer, is now just fastened to the pier with all her company and their luggage. The ship is the Mary, of Havre, and her passengers are of the better class,—stout, clean looking Hollanders, hopeful and hearty peasants from France—men who have a trade in their hands, skill in their brawny arms, and money in their pockets, and women who promise to be helps meet for industrious and intelligent men. As they leave the barge, they are examined with reference to their health, and to discover if any of them should be conveyed to the Hospital. They then enter the Garden and present themselves immediately at the desk in the centre of the room. There the names are registered, and the names and number of their family, the ship they come in, their point of destination, the route they prefer taking to reach it, the amount of money that they bring, etc. The following is the number of emigrants arrived these last three days, and the amount of money that they brought with them, By the Albert 240 passengers $15,000 By the Bridgwater 450 passengers $1,753 By the Lelia 12 families $238 By the Mary 200 passengers $14,434

If any are ignorant of the routes West an officer points out the peculiarities of each, shows the nearest cut to distant places, and informs them of the prices of tickets. Maps of the States and of the routes are hung about the room, and if the officer does his duty, no intelligent man need decide until he knows the general features of the land that lies between the promised land and Castle Garden. This information is what almost every emigrant needs, and the officer charged with the duty should be one of the best of men. The moment that he recommends one route above another he urges to the selection of this one or the other, he has violated a rule of the establishment and is worthy to be kicked out.

Next, the emigrant is shown to the baths. We join the crowd of males that flock in to the right. Here we find a large room, in the centre of which hang several coarse roller towels, and along the side is a deep trough of running Croton. This is the wash-room. Soap abounds—we hope no motives of niggardly economy will ever make it lose plenty. Behind a screen that reaches across the room is the basin for bathing. A dozen or two can be accommodated in it at the same time. Indeed, every facility is granted the new comer, whatever may be his condition on entering it, to leave Castle Garden personally clean. The female bath and wash-room were the counterpart of the male, but as it was in use at the time, we consented to take the statement of our conductor and forgo a personal investigation.

Back now to the Weighmaster on the wharf each head of a family must go, point out his luggage, and receive a certificate of its aggregate weight.

Now, if the emigrant desires to stop in the City, he may leave his luggage, to be called for when wanted, and issuing out at the narrow front gate, saunter up Broadway, and squat, or tent, or buy and build as suits his own sweet will,—he is already a prospective American citizen and has the freedom of the City or the land. But few by this arrival elect to stop here—for they are wise enough to push on where they will be welcomed—to the West. All such are directed to the Clerk in an office at the front part of the building, where they exhibit their tickets, if they purchased them in the old country, or purchase new ones if unsupplied.

If the party elects to stay a day in the City, seeing its sights and getting a sense of its sounds, he is at liberty to do so, but there are no beds in the Castle, and he must take his chance with the hospitable or craven, the honest or the sharky of the metropolis, for the night. Most prefer to go on at once. And such need not wait long. The barge is soon reloaded with the baggage, and the steamer again fastening and they are borne in the several depots they are to go by without cost, and deposited just in time to take the next train onward. So does the honored old Castle enable the Commissioners of Emigration at least to fulfill their intention of dispatching the business of the Board promptly, protecting the City from the annoyance of an immense horde of strangers utterly ignorant of the name of a street, and entirely at the mercy of heartless runners and landlords. We cannot judge, of course, how soon corruption may squeeze in the narrow entrance to the Castle, and villainous tyranny begin its abuses, but it will make the eyes of the lover of his kind water with gratitude to see the improvement already effected in behalf of the poor emigrant by the removal into Castle Garden.

The large hall of the Garden is a capital place for young Europe to enjoy itself in, during the brief bouts of his tarry in our City, on his route westward. A tall fountain feeds a noble basin of water near the spot where the old stage was, and cools the air even at the noon of the heated term. The children were rollicking about it--sailing their paper boats, and full of unrestrained glee. The women eat in groups, talking in some of those crooked old country languages that make us wonder how any talking can be done there until the people come of age,—some knitting, some cutting and eating slices of rye German bread and cheese, some patching and fixing up the wardrobes of their family. They would not have cut a very fine figure in the hall room of the Yacht Club last night, but in view of their healthy forms and faces, we would like to see them matched in the dairy, the kitchen or the field with so many of our pale New York beauties. The prevalent head dress resembled such cushions as the ladies construct of drugget and stuff with hay, set upon the crown of the head, fastened by a broad belt over the head and under the chin. They wore abundant woolen skirts, and some were of no meaner breadth about the hips than our Newport queens when girded with a couple of the “corded”—but for a different reason. It was a strapping dame, we saw, who having eaten no more than the mere nubbin of a long German loaf, proceeded to pocket the big balance. She lifted up her frock, and into a sack sowed fast to her petticoat—that more than half a city bushel might be stowed in—dropped it as one might drop her thimble. As the pocket is only entered from within we—who never bet—will wager our inkstand that no pickpocket ever lightens her of the load.

The whole castle is theirs to ramble in, and none hinder any, wherever they choose to stop in it. The best seats are free, and numbers that at Jenny Lind’s concerts sold at fabulous prices, were open to the poorest.

In a corner, a lad sells bread and cheese, and milk at what seems a high price, but is really cheap when it is remembered that a franc is always taken there for a shilling.

Sorry are we to add that there is a shadow of danger that the Commissioners may not be able to retain possession of the Garden for its present excellent use. But there is a little could—in the Councilmen’s Chamber.

Castle Garden in the Councilmen’s Committee On Friday afternoon the Committee on Public Health of the Board of Councilmen—(present, Messrs. Ranney, Slevin, and Smith)—met in the City Hall, to consider the report from the Board of Alderman as to the use of Castle Garden for an Emigrant Depot, and to hear parties in relation thereto. Messrs. Couenhoven and Cooper were absent.

Mr. A.J. Perry appeared on behalf of the remonstrants. He quoted largely from the communication from the Comptroller, in reply to a resolution relative to leaving Castle Garden to the Commissioners of Emigration, presented to the Board of Alderman, May 31, 1855. After reciting the history of the various covenants to which Castle Garden had been subjected, as fully and explicitly set forth in that document.

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Castle Garden - America's First Official Immigration Center By Kimberly Powell, About.com Filed In:Databases & Records > Immigration / Emigration> Ports Castle Clinton National Monument, Manhattan, NY

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Port of New York Castle Clinton, also referred to as Castle Garden, is a fort and national monument located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan in New York City. The structure has served as a fort, theater, opera house, national immigrant receiving station, and aquarium throughout its long history. Today, Castle Garden is called Castle Clinton National Monument and serves as the ticket center for ferries to Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. History of Castle Garden:

Castle Clinton began its interesting life as a fort built to defend New York Harbor from the British during the War of 1812. Twelve years after the war it was ceded to New York City by the U.S. Army. The former fort reopened in 1824 as Castle Garden, a public cultural center and theatre. In 1855, Castle Garden became America's first immigrant receiving center, welcoming more than 8 million immigrants before it was closed on April 18, 1890. Castle Garden was succeeded by Ellis Island in 1892.

In 1896 Castle Garden became the site of the New York City Aquarium, a capacity in which it served until 1946 when plans for the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel called for its demolition. The public outcry at the loss of the popular and historic building saved it from destruction, but the aquarium was closed and Castle Garden stood vacant until it was reopened by the National Park Service in 1975. Castle Garden Immigration Station:

From August 1, 1855 through April 18, 1890, immigrants arriving in the state of New York came through Castle Garden. America's first official immigrant examining and processing center, Castle Garden welcomed approximately 8 million immigrants - most from Germany, Ireland, England, Scotland, Sweden, Italy, Russia and Denmark. Castle Garden welcomed its last immigrant on April 18, 1890. After the closing of Castle Garden, immigrants were processed at an old barge office in Manhattan until the opening of the Ellis Island Immigration Center on 1 January 1892. More than one in six native-born Americans are descendants of the eight million immigrants who entered the United States through Castle Garden. Researching Castle Garden Immigrants:

The free CastleGarden.org database, provided online by the New York Battery Conservancy, allows you to search by name and time period for immigrants who arrived in Castle Garden between 1830 and 1890. Digital copies of the many of the ship manifests can be accessed through a paid subscription to Ancestry.com's New York Passenger Lists, 1851-1891. Microfilms of the manifests can also be obtained through your local Family History Center or National Archives (NARA) branches. Visiting Castle Garden:

Located at the southern tip of Manhattan, convenient to NYC bus and subway routes, Castle Clinton National Monument is under the administration of the National Park service and serves as a visitor center for Manhattan's national parks. The walls of the original fort remain intact, and park ranger-led and self-guided tours describe the history of Castle Clinton / Castle Garden. Open daily (except Christmas) from 8:00am to 5:00pm. Admission and tours are free.

CASTLE GARDEN...One lady's experience. This article, published 23 Dec 1866 in the New York Times, is in the possession of Paul Peterson and transcribed by several members of "The Ship's List". It was written by a steerage passenger aboard the ship S. S. SCOTLAND describing her experience being processed through Castle Garden.


CASTLE GARDEN

The New York Times - Marine Intelligence Column December 23, 1866

Topics Covered

Experiences of an English Emigrant Description of the Emigrant Depot at Castle Garden The First Night There Despondent Emigrants Difficulty of Obtaining Situations Wreck of the SCOTLAND


The daybreak of a bright Autumn morning beamed over the magnificent Bay of New-York City as the ship Scotland, conveying some 300 emigrants from the Old World, fired a salute and cast anchor in the ?roadested, amid the ringing cheers of passengers and crew. It was right pleasant -- after a passage somewhat protracted, but, for the season of the year, unprecedentedly propitious -- to at length enter the haven where we would be. With the exception of two or three nights of turbulent weather and ?hyperborean blasts as she passed the Banks of Newfoundland, where many a noble ship has met her ?fate, the voyage of The Scotland was a most favorable one and for days and days we floated over the Atlantic on a sea so level and undere a sky so calm that a pleasure yacht might have sailed over it in safety. It was indeed exhilarating, after days and nights of endurance in cabin and on deck, with the ever-same boundless blue and green of firmament and sea, with only now and then a ship in sight, or the wild wheeling sea-gull on the vessel's track, to come in view of something like land and the great City of the world's commonwealth, New York.

It was a sunrise in the New World! and a glorious and electrifying sight it was, as the sun, about to ascend the horizon, flooded cloud, sky, bay and seaboard, shipping and the surrounding scenery with streaks of gold and purple - the great City itself, and its sister cities of Brooklyn and New-Jersey, waking up as it were at some celestial summons out of the dreamy darkness of the night.

"Fair was the day, in short, earth, sea and sky beamed like a bright-eyed face that laughs out openly." The steamtug B?kbeck having come alongside, was engaged for a considerable time in transhipping the luggage, till at length we were safely landed on the threshold of Castle Garden, glad and grateful to set foot on the terra firma of the free, and rest our weary limbs and sea-worm souls and systems under the wing and welcome of its refuge. Here again at the landing stage, during the process of the second transhipment, a further opportunity was presented of viewing the river scenery, now diversified with its swift-moving, mansion-looking steamers, which fairly astonished the weak eyes and nerves of those accustomed only to the liliputian streams and petit maitre miniature landscapes of England and Europe. Truly the approach to New York is one of the most splendid and imposing in the world. Talk about the approach by the Thames to London Bridge, by the Mersey to Liverpool, by the Seine to Paris, or the Lagune to Venice! Why, you might as well compare the aforesaid muddy Thames to the great father of waters, the Mississippi, or British Snowden and the Malvern Hills to the Rocky Mountains. Things European dwindle, as it were, into specks and points infinitesimal before these stupendous stretchings and these bold outspreadings. It is Hyperion to Satyr, a wash hand-basin to a bay, and never do you so completely realize the old schoolboy reminiscence. Sic parvis componere magna solbam.

As it always happens when the attention is absorbed, or the mind rapt in admiration, something extraneous steps in to mar the meditation, just as on some Summer evening when the landscape is a all lovely and serene some grasshopper of bull-frog disturbs the quietude, so illustrating the potent truth of but "one step from the sublime to the ridiculous". A bystander, in a strong Hibernian brogue, volunteers the erudite observation, "Arrah, Pat, and what do you think of Dublin Bay after that," while another from Cockney Land apostrophizes a companion, and asks him what about the breadth of Old Father Thames at Putney. We had seen multitudes of churches, public buildings, factories, stores, and other structures, as we steamed up the Bay, but the one we had now arrived at, Castle Garden, attracted particular attention, principally, in all probability, from its being the emigrants' destination. The eye of a military man would have singled it out first and foremost as a structure pertaining to his profession, while the eye of a civilian or of an ordinary observer would have taken it for a huge reservoir or gas-holder. The landing stage is all alive with the officers of the Emigration Commissioners and the Custom-house, and while they are engaged in their duties, the more curious are all on the qui vive to ascertain what can be the nature and object of the structure before them. Although appropriated to the purposes of an emigrant depot, it turns out to be an old fortress or castle, and remains one of the great landmarks or trophies in that eternally memorable struggle -- the first great war of independence. It was built by the British in 1812, after the model of the Martello towers of the old country, when they entertained the fond but futile hope of colonizing, or, in the language (Heaven save the mark) of modern diplomacy, "annexing" America to Great Britain, and has stood dismantled and in memoriam ever since. The building is of red granite, of tremendous thickness, circular in form, and furnished with portholes and platforms, so that it is available at any moment for the defence of the harbor, only requiring a garrison and a few grim Dahlgrens to impart to it its real character.

Truly strange and checkered is the history of this structure. After the first war, and when the peace and prosperity of the City were in their zenith, the building was converted into a saloon for the amusement of the people, and has on occasions held as many as 4,000 people, when JENNY LIND, the Swedish Nightingale, and MARIO and GRISI electrified with their melody the musical elite f New-York. Here also JULLIEN wielded his magic and memorable baton before thousands at his promenade concert. The building has also since been devoted to religious services and the meetings of mechanic' institutions. Although the saying of SHAKESPEARE be trite, yet the ever freshness of it is a truism, both to men and things -- "To what stranage uses do we come at last!" -- is curiously applicable in this case, for now more marvellous still we have the structure devoted to one of the noblest of humanitarian uses, that of a depot, established by a paternal Republic for the strangers and children of other lands who seek its shores in such undiminished shoals.

All being ready, the emigrants proceed in a body up the corridor into the interior of the building, their boxes and baggage being removed to the luggage warehouses, and here they range themselves in order on the seats. In front of them, and in the centre of the building, which is lit by a glass dome, stand a staff of some dozen gentlemen, all busily engaged in making arrangements for facilitating the movements and promoting the settlement of the newly-arrived emigrants. Each emigrant, man, woman and child, passes up in rotation to the Bureau, and gives to the registrar his or her name and destination, as a check upon the return of the Captain of the vessel, who gives the name, place of birth, age and occupation. One of the leading officers connected with the Bureau of Information then mounts a rostrum, and addressing the assembled emigrants, tells them that such as are not otherwise provided for, or prepared to pay for their accommodation, can find shelter under the roof of that building; that advice and information of the best and most reliable kind can be had relative to tickets for railway and steamer to take them East, West, North or South; as to the best means of obtaining employment, for which a register is kept in the Intelligence Department of the Institution; also as to the best and most expeditious routes to take, with facilities for corresponding with friends, and of changing money at the Bureau of Exchange.

The Intelligence Department is largely resorted to by emigrants, inasmuch as there they can obtain information as to probable situations without fee, for which outside they are asked $2 by the employment agents. A careful supervision is exercised by the office as to the suitability and respectability of the parties on both sides. All this is well and wisely done for the protection of the emigrant, who would otherwise, if lett to himself, become the prey of sharpers, boarding- house "runners", "scalpers", leafers, et id genus omne. Such as are ill or invalid are at once sent to the State Hospital, where they receive the best of medical treatment and general attention. A tolerable estimate may be formed of the work and labor devolving on the establishment, when it is remembered that during the past month of November, 17,280 emigrants had arrived at Castle Garden, or a grand total of 219,830 to that date since the beginning of the year, while according to the latest return made up to Thursday last, the total number of arrivals from January to Dec. 5, had reached the enormous number of 222,494, being an increase of 26,142 over the corresponding period of the preceding year--all permeating and passing through the great artery of life and labor at Castle Garden. The advantages conferred by the regulations of the institution are developed every day in the shield of protection that, by means of its advice, information and police, it confers on the unsuspecting emigrant and on the unprotected female, the friendless, the orphan and the widow.

Such is Castle Garden as a great national refuge for the emigrant from all lands. It has nothing to parallel it on the continent of Europe. It stands alone in its noble and utilitarian character.

A NIGHT IN CASTLE GARDEN. It was nearly evening before all the business connected with the emigrant department was over and the emigrants began to settle down in their new locality, and the building being lit up with gas gave a more cheerful aspect to the interior, and enabled us to survey the somewhat novel scene before us. You could at first imagine, were you not painfully concious to the contrary, that all those human beings seated on the benches had assembled to witness some theatrical entertainment. On looking right and left, an arrangement will be observed to have been effected, once the emigrants marched in miscellaneously---the Germans and Dutch, who form by far the most numerouse body, being parceled off into the eastern portion of the building, which is seperated from the other portion, which contains indiscriminately English, Irish, Scotch and French. Two large iron stoves, between four and five feet high, fed with plentiful supplies of anthracite, and throwing out considerable heat, occupy each end of these apartments, one being set apart for the males and the other for the females.

In a far corner of each compartment is a kind of refectory, where for fifteen or twenty cents you can obtain a half a pint of coffee, a roll, cheese or butter; but many of the emigrants appeared to prefer purchasing their own tea and coffee, and preparing it in tin utensils in the stoves. There are two water taps and an iron ladle at each end of the division, from which draughts of the Croton are in constant request, nothing in the shape of wine, lager beer or spirits being all owed to be sold upon the premises.

Two very civil and intelligent watchmen reconnoitre during the night to keep order and attend upon the emigrants, both having served their country in the late war. One will not very readily forget his first nights' sojourn at Castle Garden. They were indeed "noctes noiauda"---anything but "noctes ambrosiana"---it's hard boards anything but a bed of roses. Having determined to rough it with our traveling companions, who could not afford a dollar for their bed and breakfast, we essayed a sleep, but vainly. Somnus had no compassion on the denizens of Castle Garden, however much they may invoke him, for such is the cold comfortless, sepulchral character of the place (this, it is only fair to state, was the experience of the writer before the building had been placed in thorough repair arising from the wind whistling through the open casemates, doors and windows, combined with the tantamara of tongues, the squalling of children and the erratic ramblings round about of a colony of rats that it was impossible to obtain repose, even after a fortnight's rocking to and fro and reeling in the Scotland, the snug hammock of which was a comparative paradise to this.

Those who were unable to sleep rose and stood around the stoves. One subject of conversation adverted to with melancholy interest had reference to the suspected murder of one of the emigrants as the Scotland was leaving Liverpool. At all advents, the body of a respectably-dressed man, with a letter in his pocket was found stowed away in one of the recesses of the engine room, some 30 feet below deck, and in a place the seamen and firemen affirm where it could not have got by accident or a fall. The supposition is that the man was first murdered on board, and then secreted below. The head and body were dreadfully mutilated. On being discovered the body was wrapped, with some fire bars in canvas and thrown overboard.

We are not aware of whether any report of this mysterious affair was made to the Emigration Commissioners or to the British Consul either here or at Liverpool, but it was a matter that called for investigation, and cast a gloom over the passengers for the remainder of her voyage. Every one, through the columns of the NEW-YORK TIMES, is now familiar with the ultimate unhappy fate of the Scotland on her return voyage, the fourteenth that she had made in and out in the service of the Transatlantic Emigration and of the National Steamship Companies.

But there is one interesting incident illustrative of the sagacity and fidelity of a Newfoundland dog on board the derelict vessel, the Kate Dyer, that deserves to be recorded. Just after the vessel was run down by the Scotland and about to sink, the dog was seen to rush into the water and endeavor to rescue a youth from the watery grave that awaited him. Three successive times the dog dragged the body of the boy from the sinking ship, and the third time it slipped from him; foiled in his attempt he stood for a minute or two more howling and mournfully watching the scene, until, in desperation, he made a fourth attempt to float the body, but with no greater success than before; unsuccessful in saving the life of the lad, the Captain and crew of the Scotland, who had been intently watching the efforts of the noble animal, rewarded him by saving his life and hauling him in safely on board ship amid the cheers and congratulations of the crew.

As may be imagined, much of the conversation of the sleepless emigrants that night was directed to the good or bad fortune they had met with during the day in quest of situations and employment, and many came back reporting dolefully and despondently in that respect. Bakers butchers, boiler-makers, gardeners, grooms, and in fact masters of almost every calling to be found in the book of trades, all stated how they had canvassed the various establishments in the great City during the day, and had found, with some few exceptions, that they were all full, and that no help or hands were wanted.

Never were the advertisements columns of the TIMES and other papers, for "help wanted," devoured with such avidity or the few cents for their purchase invested in them with such readiness, and it is gratifying to state that in very many instances they led to the procurement for the poor emigrant of a billet and a home. The report of a second and subsequent day's pursuit of employment under difficulties showed a much more gratifying result. Some had been temporarily, and others conditionally, engaged, either in factories or at farm-work, the latter at $12 a month and their keep, while many who had not succeeded were kindly sent, by order of the Commissioners, to Ward's island, to be employed in miscellaneous work about the State Hospital and grounds, or to work at their respective trades, for which they received their board and lodging in return, until something better could be obtained for them.

Most of the strong, healthy girls and young women, principally Irish, succeed, through the agency of the Labor Department of the Commissioners, in obtaining situations as housemaids, nursemaids, milliners, sewing-machine hands and dressmakers, and in a few days bid adieu to the sheltering care of Castle Garden. At one time, when matters looked very discouraging in the way of getting work, and many of the emigrants, after disposing of their wearing apparel, were reduced to their last few cents, the propriety of waiting in a body on the British Consul was mooted, but the suggestion was not carried out in that form. One or two, however, did centure in their individual capacity, to wait on that functionary, and after making a statement of their forlorn and embarassed condition, were informed, to their great discomfiture and chagrin, that the Consul, although the representative of Great Britain for the protection and assistance of British subjects, had no power to render them relief, pecuniarily or otherwise, and that all he had the power of doing was to give assistance to seamen in shipwreck or distress.

A poor Frenchman, who had been a waiter in Leicestersquare, reduced to his last sous, also waited on the French Consul and was told to "go to Castle Garden." A similar application to a Society entitled the St. George's Society, having the reputation in England of being a good Samaritan body of gentlemen who relieved and assisted Englishmen on their arrival here, met with a similar result, it being explained by the Secretary that the limited funds at the command of the Society were appropriated to the assistance, not of emigrant Englishmen, but of needy natives and of indigent men and women far advanced in years. Well with such Job's comforters as these, might the aid of Providence be invoked by the poor emigrant!

Still, as a pleasing set-off to all this, many were the little incidents told of hospitality and charity shown by residents and natives to the newcomers in their difficulty--such as the giving them a day's work and a dollar, or a hearty meal and information as to the best means of getting work, showing a genuine sympathy and fellow-feeling on the part of those who had once been adrift and in difficulty themselves.

Among the emigrants that came out on the Scotland, were three or four poor fellows who turned out to be "stow-aways" --that is to say, persons who had stowed themselves away clandestinely on board, anxious to get across, and willing to run the risk of doing so, even at the risk of three months hard labor. They were not discovered until the vessel neared New York, when every man was challenged for his ticket, and of course, in these cases, there being none to produce, the interlopers were detected and taken before the Captain, who at first threatened to exhibit them in irons on the quarterdeck, but relenting, on second consideration in his more serious intentions, he determined, after the administration of a few cuffs and a severe shaking from one of the mates, on making them work the remainder of their passage,and forthwith, the ship being short of hands, set them about swabbing the decks and helping the firemen in the coal bunks. And right glad were our "stowaways" of the mercy shown them, seeing that they had all along secured, and would continue to do so, food and lodging to the end of the voyage.

At one time it was seriously ontemplated by some of the more desponding and disappointed to turn "stowaway" and return from whence they came, in spite of being made the laughing-stock of those at home; and some half-dozen, who could not be induced "to wait a little longer," actually went on board to return with the Scotland.

A very noticeable thing among the miscellaneous crowd was the attention paid by the Irish portion of it to their devotions. Invariably as vesper and matin time drew nigh, men and women scattered here and there were to be seen upon their knees in supplication. At least one-third of the emigrants by the Scotland were Irish, most of them vigorous, spirited young men, many of them bent on joining the Fenian brotherhood, and speaking enthusiastically of its progress. There were two or three young priests among the number.

It is astonishing how the Irish take to this country, and no wonder when it is remembered how differently they are treated to what they are in the old, of which they speak with great bitterness of spirit. Many are the weeping eyes and widowed hearts, that now under the great exodus going on are leaving their native shores, and it is understood that in the Spring the number of new-comers, more particularly from the counties of Waterford, Wexford and Cork, will be enormous. They know they can find a free home in the far west, and that they will be treated with kindness --- kindness that great key to good will and willingness of every man's heart, the want of which on the part of England and the English people, not less than their political wrongs and maltreatment, has been the great secret of the inveterate and vendet a-like feeling and alienation of Ireland from the mother country.

In the States, they no longer have "the country" thrown in their face, and "no Irish need apply" is never heard in dealing with Americans. There was one among the group of woman who was the object of great commisseration. She had lost her little one on the voyage, from fever, and the poor child had to be thrown overboard, she, poor mother, being left, like Rachel, weeping for her child and would not be comforted because it was no more. It is indeed a sad thing to have to hide one's offspring in the grave on land, but there is something about death and burial in the cold canvas winding-sheet at sea, in a fathomless grave, yet harder and more galling.

It is pitiable to perceive the condition of some of the young women who arrive from the mother country in the familt way, though it is at the same time satisfactory to think that they will not aid in swelling the huge holocaust of infanticide there, but that their offspring, cherished and taken care of with the mothers by the State Hospital here, will form additions to the future populations.

There was no prohibition against "smoking" at the Garden, his pipe being one of the prime comforts and companions of the poor immigrant in all his vicissitudes and "trials,"and the fragrant weed was freely indulged in, the more so as it was very properly prohibited, excepting on deck, during the voyage, or if indulged in, it was at the risk of being put in irons by the Captain.

Two stories were told of two adventures in one of the least reputable parts of the City, not a stone's throw from Castle Garden, which if true, or of more frequent occurrence, call for serious investigation.

A mulatto man from Liverpool, going down South to the cotton plantations with which he was connected, states that on one occasion he went into one of the lager-bier saloons; and having occasion to go into the back part of the premises, through a long and dingy corridor, when at the end the gas-light was suddenly extinguished, and hearing some mysterious movements, and mindful not only of his life, but watch and money, he precipitately and successfully recovered his way back and immediately left the suspicious premises and people, from which he heartily congratulated himself on his escape.

Another emigrant went, the day after his landing, into a lager-beer shop kept by an Irishman, in Washington-street, without knowing the character of the locality, had a glass of beer, and sat down to rest himself, and, being rather travel-worn and weary, after being about ten minutes in the bar unconsciously closed his eyes. Suddenly the brute of a bartender, in a rude Irish brogue, ordered him to get up and go out. Taken by surprise at the abruptness of the treatment, the poor emigrant stood and stared, when the ruffian seized a heavy wooden club in the corner, and, uttering an oprecation?? about the English threatened to smash his customer's brains out, and as he slowly left the place, actually hit him a heavy blow with his club upon the shoulder. The occurrence may be left to speak for itself, and may be recommended to the notice of the Police.

As a general rule, the emigrants behaved themselves throughout the voyage, with remarkable decorum, which was not even infringed upon when one fine night they held a sort of sea-carnival or dance on the after deck of the Scotland. It was pitiful to meet with some at the Garden who had to bemoan the loss of their boxes, and ludicrous on the other hand to see how one poor girl had contrived to keep all her earthly stock of goods in the fragile interior of two bandboxes.

Many were the complaints made by the poorer class of emigrants---forgetting that it all arose out of the war---at the high price of provisions---just double that in many instances they paid in the old country, and hoping that, if for their sakes only, the country would soon return to the ante-war prices---a consummation most devoutly to be wished. All appeared to be hearty and in good health, that most priceless of blessings, for "he that hath thee," says Sterne, "has everything with thee, but he that is so wretched as to want thee wants everything with thee."

Only one or two cases had to be sent to the hospital, and altogether the vessel had a clean bill of health, far different from last year, when owing to the prevalence of cholera, many died and had to be thrown overboard. No inconsiderable amount of thieving occurred both on board and at Castle Garden, of wearing apparel and other articles and one night at the Castle one emigrant, subsequently detected through the vigilance of Officer Murphy, had the effrontery to rob another by whose side he was sleeping of his watch. In fact nothing was safe out of sight or hands for a minute from the marauders and pilferers.

The crew of the Scotland being short-handed many of the emigrants were well cared for in grub and grog and paid extra for lending a hand on deck, and most lustily did they work at the ropes, singing "Yea, yeo, yea, yeo, we are all bound to go." Many of the men had become grizzly and hirsute, and much wanted a clean shave, but almost stood aghast when they heard that it would cost them twenty-five cents to have their beards taken off-- an operation that, when last effected, they only paid a penny for.

I have since seen some of those emigrants who were at first so despondent and could get no work, and it was delightful to see what transformation they had undergone. They had obtained situations either in stores or in some capacity and were all happiness and smiles. Their patience and perseverance had been rewarded. One or two practical thoughts and suggestions appear to arise out of the foregoing "olla pedrida" of the experiences of an emigrant. It would be a good plan if the Commissioners, in order to facilitate and increase the opportunities of getting work, were to invite notifications wherever hands were required from establishments and factories throughout the City and State, and keep a register for the purpose. Lists might be advantageously posted up in the garden, together with the daily newspapers, for the information of the emigrants.

The vast space at present unappropriated in the balconies of the building might be converted into dormitories for the women and children, and those in delicate health, and a towel or two, some soap, and other requisites, would be useful supplemental articles in the washing rooms. Many a poor emigrant comes over in a filthy and verminous condition, and the first thing done with such would be to order them a bath and send them to the hospital, where their clothes might undergo a process of purification and fumigation, and so prevent the spread in the New World of the pestilencesness of the old. It is true the emigrant can go to church, but a better observance of the Sabbath might be added to the other regulations and arrangements of Castle Garden. One of the officers might offer a few prayers, or read a discourse, or raise a hymn, or the chaplain of the State Hospital or other establishment in the City might officiate in the evening.

Farewell, Castle Garden! I have met with nothing on the continent of Europe that can at all compare with the spectacle thou presenteth, and the benevolence and benefits that thou bestoweth - sacred asylum of the emigrant escaped from the dead ooze and dead lock of the Old World to the new life and progress, splendor and expansiveness of the New, where, under thy paternal and excelsior system, he may be no longer subjected to the terrors of landlordism, the tyranny of taxation or the evils of class representation; but, being welcomed into the great family of freedom and becoming a loyal son of the Republic, almost realize the Arcadian representation of the poet, when he tells them to go...

"And rear new homes under trees that glow As tho' gems were the fruitage of every bough; O'er the white walls to trim the vine, And sit in its shadow at days's decline, And watch their herds as they range at will, Thru' the green savannas, all bright and still." Again Castle Garden -- benevolent vestibule to this better land, and this better state of things! Farewell...C. M. A.

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