The town, part of the Sadaquada Patent, was settled in 1784, the first time any permanent settlement was made in the county. The Town of Whitestown was formed in 1788, before the creation of Oneida County, with a size of 12 million acres (49,000 km²). Whitestown was founded by Hugh White after he discovered the land in 1784 by way of traveling the Mohawk River. On June 5th, 1784, White and his family came upon the mouth of the Sauquoit Creek and settled in the forests that would become Whitestown. White was also the forerunner for the creation of Oneida County, NY in the 1790s.
It is known as the "Mother of Towns" because of the many towns and counties formed from its expanse. The Town of Paris and the Town of Steuben were formed from Whitestown in 1792. The Town of Cazenovia was formed in 1793. The Town of Augusta was formed in 1798. Utica was formed in 1817. The Town of New Hartford was formed from Whitestown in 1827.