Until the 9th century, when it was taken over by Mercia, this area was within the Welsh kingdom of Ergyng. After the Norman conquest, the area became known as Archenfield and was governed as part of the Welsh Marches. It became part of Herefordshire, and England, in the 16th century, although the use of Welsh in the area remained strong until the 19th century. The Welsh name for the village, Llandywynnog, means "church of Tywynnog", derived from a personal name Gwynnog.
Within the village is the Old Court Hotel which was the ancestral home of the Gwillim family, and was lived in for a while by John Graves Simcoe, first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (1791–1796) and founder of Toronto. Whitchurch Township in Ontario was named by Simcoe after the birthplace of his wife, Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim.
The primary school is Whitchurch Church of England Primary School, which holds awards for Investors in People and Eco Schools.