Wellington is a town in inland New South Wales, Australia located at the junction of the Macquarie and Bell Rivers. The town is the administrative centre of the Wellington Shire local government area. The town is from Sydney on the Great Western Highway and Mitchell Highway. At the 2011 census, Wellington had a population of 4,540.
The area was originally occupied by the Wiradjuri people. Explorer John Oxley was the first European to discover the area in 1817 and named it "Wellington Valley" after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.
Wellington was originally established in 1823 by Lieutenant Percy Simpson in early 1823 as an agricultural station. Squatters started settling along the Macquarie Valley and in 1832 CMS was established in the settlement to teach Christianity to the Aboriginal people of the area. The convict settlement ceased in 1831 but a village called Montefiores was established on the north side of the Macquarie River crossing. The Town of Wellington was gazetted in 1846. On 20 March 1885, Wellington was proclaimed a town. Wellington Shire Council was established in 1949.
Wellington is the second oldest New South Wales settlement west of the Blue Mountains. One of its hotels, the Lion of Waterloo, established by Nicolas Hyeronimus in 1842, is the oldest operating west of the Blue Mountains, and is near the location of the last recorded duel fought on Australian soil in 1854. The railway from Sydney reached Wellington in 1880.
As a regional centre Wellington benefited by the development of the gold mining industry in the district from the 1850s. Initially this was working alluvial deposits of gold but later focused on the mining of quartz reefs. Among the mining districts was Mitchells Creek located 8 miles to the north east near the present day town of Bodangora.