Most populated municipality of the department with inhabitants in 2009, is the seventh city Franche-Comté. The same year, Urban community of Vesoul which covers 19 municipalities together inhabitants while the Urban area of Vesoul which includes 78 municipalities, groups inhabitants. Its urban area is the fifth largest Franche-Comté. Its inhabitants are known in French as Vésuliens. Nicknamed the "Nice of the East", the reputation of Vesoul based primarily on the song "Vesoul" by Jacques Brel and the Vesoul International Film Festival of Asian Cinema. Its 16,000 inhabitants, account Vesoul 2000 students and 8000 licensed sport. The city has received many labels and names that reflect the investigation brings to life Vesoul common.
Built on top of the hill de la Motte, in the first millennium, the old medieval town of Castrum Vesulium, the city is gradually presented as European commercial and economic center with many traders and exchangers and European Jews. At the end of the Middle Ages, the city experienced a period of strong difficulties as plagues, epidemics, destruction ...
Main urban center of the department, Vesoul is also the capital of the logistics industry with the PSA Vesoul Plant and the seat of several institutions such as the Regional Centre for Restoration of Works of Art.
The town is the capital of the department.