The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain. Located east of Gijón and west of Bilbao, the city has a population of 179,921 (2011).
In the Roman Empire, the city was known as Portus Victoriae Iuliobrigensium. Its present name is possibly derived from Saint Andrew (Sanct Ander) or Saint Emeterio (Santemter, Santenter, Santander), a martyr whose head was brought there in the 3rd century, along with that of Saint Celedonio, according to legend.
The city owes its existence to the excellent harbour of the Bay of Santander. Santander was an important port for Castile in the later Middle Ages, and also for trade with the New World. It officially became a city in 1755.
In 1893 the freighter Cabo Machichaco exploded in the harbour, killing 500 people.
In the early 20th century Santander became the favoured summer residence of King Alfonso XIII, who built the Palacio de la Magdalena as the residence of the royal family during the holidays. The city gained great popularity from this and from the 19th century enthusiasm for sea bathing, and it remains popular with the Spanish for beach holidays today.
Great fire of 1941
Santander fell victim to a great fire in 1941. Fanned by a strong south wind, the fire burned for two days. There was only one casualty, a firefighter killed in the line of duty, but thousands of families were left homeless and the city was plunged into chaos. The fire destroyed the greater part of the medieval town centre and gutted the city’s Romanesque cathedral.