The Town of Norway is located in the east-central part of the county and is northeast of Utica.
The town borders the Adirondack Park.
The town was permanently settled around 1787 after an abandoned effort in 1786.
Norway was formed in 1792 immediately after the creation of Herkimer County. Norway was originally a very large town, and it was subsequently broken up, directly or indirectly, into about thirty-six new towns in several counties. In Herkimer County, the Towns of Fairfield (1796), Russia (1806), Ohio (1823), Wilmurt (now defunct), and Webb (1836) were made by dividing Norway. Part of Newport was taken from Norway in 1806. The creation of Oneida County, Lewis County, Clinton County, Hamilton County, and St. Lawrence County from Herkimer County accounts for the remaining towns derived from Norway.
In 1825, the town's population was 1,168.
Because of poor soil conditions, early farmers eventually turned to raising dairy herds. By 1887, there were six cheese factories in Norway.