New Oxford is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States . It was originally platted in 1792 for Henry Kuhn by James Bolton and identified as "Oxford town" due to the presence of a nearby stream ford and a local establishment named "Dutch Frederick's stand" with the head of an ox on the front of the building. This was changed again in 1822 by the town's first postmaster, Dr. Pfeiffer to "New Oxford". New Oxford was incorporated as borough in August 20, 1874 and Joseph S. Gitt was elected as its first president and then served as secretary thru 1891. In 1886, the population was 209 with 67 horses,40 cows, 65 "pleasure carriages" and 14 gold watches.
The population was 1,783 at the 2010 census. Within New Oxford there are several large manufacturing plants. Among these are Winter Gardens, which manufactures products such as chicken salad; Yazoo Mills, which manufactures paper products; Pilgrim's Pride, which processes turkeys; and Aero Energy, which refurbishes propane and C02 containers for Blue Rhino. New Oxford is also a popular location for many antique shops, and is a destination for antique enthusiasts.