Neoga is a city in Cumberland County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,636 at the 2010 census, down from 1,854 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Charleston–Mattoon Micropolitan Statistical Area. The current mayor of Neoga is Wayne Modglin, a councilman who was appointed to the position following the resignation of Jay Russell. The mayor before Jay Russell was Gary Mercer.
Neoga was incorporated in 1856. Neoga means "deer" in the Kickapoo language.