Muskogee is a city in Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States. It is the county seat of Muskogee County, and home to Bacone College. The population was 39,223 at the 2010 census, a 2.4 percent increase from 38,310 at the 2000 census, making it the eleventh-largest city in Oklahoma. It is sometimes referred informally among its residents as "the 'Gee."
The 1951 film Jim Thorpe, All American, starring Burt Lancaster, was filmed on the campus of Bacone Indian College at Muskogee. Two feature films were recently shot in Muskogee: Salvation (2007) and Denizen (2010).
French fur traders were believed to have established a temporary village near Muskogee in 1806, but the first permanent settlement was established in 1817 on the south bank of the Verdigris River, north of Muskogee.
The Creek Indians and their slaves relocated to the area after the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 under President Andrew Jackson. Muskogee became the site of the Indian Agency, a two-story stone building where the heads of the Five Civilized Tribes met. Today it serves as a museum at the top of Agency Hill, in Honor Heights Park, on the west side of Muskogee.
In 1872, the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad was extended to the area. A federal court was established in the city in 1889 around the same time that Indian Territory was opened to settlers via land rushes. The city was incorporated on March 19, 1898.
As Muskogee’s economic and business importance grew, so did its political power. When the Civilized Tribes met together to propose an Indian State, the State of Sequoyah, they met on August 21, 1905 in Muskogee to draft its constitution. They planned to have Muskogee serve as the State's capital. Vetoed by US President Theodore Roosevelt, the proposed State of Sequoyah did not receive federal recognition. The US admitted the State of Oklahoma to the Union on November 16, 1907 as the 46th State.
Muskogee received national and international attention when, in May 2008, voters elected John Tyler Hammons as mayor. Nineteen years old at the time of his election, Hammons is among the youngest mayors in American history.