Moscow is a city in northern Idaho, situated along the Washington/Idaho border, with a population of 23,800 at the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city of Latah County, Moscow is the home of the University of Idaho, the land grant institution and primary research university for the state, as well as the home of New Saint Andrews College. Eight miles (13 km) west is Pullman, Washington, home of Washington's land-grant university, Washington State University.
Moscow is the principal city in the Moscow, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Latah County. The city contains over 60% of the county's population and while the university is the dominant employer in Moscow, the city also serves as an agricultural and commercial hub for the Palouse region. Moscow is the birthplace of coach Hec Edmundson, writer Carol Ryrie Brink, singer Josh Ritter, and composer Zae Munn.
Along with the rest of northern Idaho, Moscow resides in the Pacific Time Zone, and the elevation of its city center is above sea level. Major highways serving the city are US-95 (north-south) and Highway 8 (east-west), both of which are routed through central Moscow. Limited commercial air service is four miles west (6 km) at the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport.
Main Street runs north-south through Moscow along the 117th meridian west.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , all of it land.
The city of Moscow lies on the eastern edge of the Palouse region of North Central Idaho in the Columbia River Plateau. East of the city is a valley within the mountains of the Palouse Range to the northeast, whose highest point is Moscow Mountain at above sea level. The less prominent Paradise Ridge at and Tomer Butte at are southeast of the city. Paradise Creek, with headwaters on Moscow Mountain to the northeast, flows through Moscow, then crosses the state border and joins the south fork of the Palouse River near Pullman, which eventually drains into the Snake River and Columbia River on its way to the Pacific Ocean.
The geology in and around Moscow represents varied formations: very old intrusive granite structures of the Jurassic−Eocene Idaho Batholith, fertile fields atop rolling hills of deep Pleistocene loess of the Palouse Formation deposited after the last ice age by westerly winds, and flood-worn channels of the Columbia River Basalt Group.
There is a variety of flora and fauna within the vicinity of Moscow. An amphibian, the Rough-skinned Newt, has a disjunctive population at Moscow; this species is found typically along the Pacific coast of the USA.