The Town of Madrid is in the northern part of the county, north of Canton.
Madrid-Waddington Central School serves the town of Madrid, but outside the population center.
Madrid was first settled around 1801.
The Town of Madrid was one of the four original towns created along with the county in 1802. The south part of Madrid was lost to form the Town of Potsdam in 1806. The town gave up territory for the new Town of Waddington in 1859.
After a more diverse economy, including mining and logging, the primary industry became farming, and the commercial presence is solely to support the residents.