Leonora is a town in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia, located northeast of the state capital, Perth, and north of the city of Kalgoorlie. At the 2006 census, Leonora had a population of 401, about a third of whom are of Aboriginal descent. The area is extremely arid, with a mean annual rainfall of just . Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 18°C (64°F) in July to 37°C (99°F) in January.
Leonora is primarily a mining town. There are a number of major gold mines in the Shire, as well as the Murrin Murin laterite nickel project. The area is too arid to support intensive agriculture, but there is a substantial pastoral industry.
The first European explorer was John Forrest, who visited the area in 1869. Forrest's party made camp near a conspicuous hill, which Forrest named Mount Leonora, after his six-year-old niece Fanny Leonora Hardey. In 1894, gold was discovered in the area by a prospector named Morrisey, and in the following two years a number of rich finds resulted in rapid development of the area. The Sons of Gwalia gold mine brought Leonora to the attention of the world. By 1897 a residential and business area had been established, and the town was gazetted as Leonora in 1898.
Leonora had a single track passenger tramway linking the town and nearby Gwalia, from 1901 to 1921. Initially steam driven, the service was electric from November 1908, and petrol powered from 1915.