Lafayette County is a county located in the state of Florida. In the 2010 census, its population was 8,870. It is the second least populous county in the state, with a few hundred more residents than Liberty County. The county seat is Mayo. Lafayette County is a prohibition or entirely dry county.
Lafayette County was created on December 23, 1856, from part of Madison County. At the time it comprised all the area of present-day Lafayette and Dixie counties. The County was named in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, the French general who rendered assistance to the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. The famed Suwannee River forms the entire eastern boundary. The county courts first met at the home of Ariel Jones near Fayetteville. The county seat was New Troy until the court house burned down on New Year's Eve, 1892. It was moved to Mayo in 1893, and Mayo is currently Lafayette's only incorporated town. The moving of the courthouse was the end for New Troy. The Gainesville Sun states that houses were dismantled for their timber and bricks, hardwoods replaced the fields, steamboat traffic ended in 1899, and the ferry closed in 1917. In 1921 the lower part of the county was carved off to create Dixie County.
Historic sites in Lafayette County include: