In 1917, the U.S. Air Service established its largest European training center, the 3d Aviation Instruction Center, about nine miles northwest of the town. At the time of the Armistice, 11 November 1918, thirteen fields were in operation and well over 10,000 ground personnel, student pilots and instructors were located there. It was at that time the largest air base in the world. A single monument on Department Route 960 remains to mark Issoudun's part in the Great War.
The United States Air Service formally left Issoudun on June 28, 1919, almost eight months after the war ended. The sites of the former airfields have returned to their previous status as agricultural fields.
On 28 June 2009, the people of Issoudun had a commemoration ceremony in honor of the American aviators who had trained, and in many cases, died while training there.
In Literature Issoudun figures prominently in Balzac's novel A Bachelor's Establishment (aka The Black Sheep) which the Guardian has ranked as the 12th greatest novel of all time.