Ischua is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 859 at the 2010 census. The Town of Ischua is located in the southeast quadrant of the county. Ischua is also the name of a village in the town. The Town of Ischua is on the eastern border of the county, north of Olean, New York.
The current community of Ischua was first settled around 1812 by Seymore Buton and also visited by Abram Farwell, who would return with his wife Lydia Farwell and their family. In 1814, the Farwells bought a tract of land in what is now the Town of Ischua to build a sawmill on, the community has had continuous settlement ever since that date and the Farwell family have been a part of the history of Ischua for generations since. The Town of Ischua was made in 1846 from a division of the Town of Hinsdale. There was previously another "Town of Ischua" in the county, which has now been succeeded by the Town of Franklinville and the rest of the northern part of Cattaraugus county. When first formed, the present Ischua was known as the "Town of Rice."
ISCHUA was formed from Hinsdale as Rice, Feb. 7, 1846, and the first town meeting was held at the residence of E. Densmore, Feb.24, 1846. The first town officers were Frederick Carpenter, Supervisor; Isaac N. Fuller, Town Clerk; Philo Burlingame, Superintendent of Common Schools; Wm. S. Pitcher, Simon C. Mallory and A. L. Barnard, Assessors; Morgan I. Titus, F. Carpenter, C.C. Hatch and Hiram L. Seavy, Justices of the Peace. Its name was changed March 27, 1855 from Rice to Ischua.
Quarries of good building stone existed in the town to aid the early settlers. The Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia R.R. traversed the town in the valley of Ischua Creek.
The town had several Telephone prefix during the party line days shared with nearby communities such as Franklinville, Allegany and Cuba and including 557- that it shared with Hinsdale. The town had its own post office, in the early days the post office was known as West Hinsdale, then Rice and finally Ischua (zip code 14746) until the early 1990s, when the zip code was abandoned and postal services merged with Hinsdale's.