Pop: 13032 (winter, 2006 census), approx. 60000 (summer).
Founded by Arabs, Guadarrama achieved the status of "villa" under Fernando V of Castile (II of Aragon) on November 22, 1504. Fernando VI ordered the building of a road to Corunna through the Pass of Guadarrama, which saw intensive fighting during the Spanish Civil War. As a result, after the Spanish Civil War Guadarrama had to be rebuilt almost completely.
After a short period in which it was famous for its tuberculosis sanatoriums, it has become important as a tourist location and a second residence for Madrid inhabitants.