The parish church, dedicated to Saint Bartholomew, is flint-faced and has some 15th-century features but was heavily restored in the 19th century. In addition to Groton village, the parish contains the hamlets of Broad Street, Castling's Heath, Gosling Green, Horner's Green and Parliament Heath.
The lord of the manor was originally the Abbot of Bury St. Edmunds, but at the Dissolution (1536-1541), was granted to the Winthrops. Groton, Massachusetts, is named after the village, as it was founded by a member of the Winthrop family; John Winthrop was born at Groton Manor in 1587. He became the leader of the Winthrop Fleet, a founder of the city of Boston and one of the first Governors of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The parish church has a Victorian stained glass window in his memory. Groton, Connecticut, was also named after the village to honour of his son John Winthrop the Younger who settled in that area in 1646. On a common called "The Croft" in the village is an old mulberry tree said to have been planted by Adam Winthrop, the grandfather of John the elder.