The first settlement on the site was made around 1750, and was called "Van Epps Swamp" due to the swampland by the river. Homes located here were burned during the American Revolution.
The village was founded around 1824 in anticipation of the opening of the Erie Canal.
Fultonville was incorporated as a village August 9, 1848. The original board of Trustees was:
At the time of incorporation, the village's population numbered 630. In 1875 the population had increased to 1220.
Cobblestone Hall and Free Library
Cobblestone Hall and Free Library was built sometime before 1868 when it was the house of C.B. Freeman. Freeman was proprietor of Fultonville Steam Mills. He lived at this residence until at least 1878 when F.W. Beers published a history of Montgomery and Fulton Counties. By 1905, a large wooden addition had been made to the rear of the building and was then called "Cobblestone Free Hall and Library." The building still stands, minus the addition, and is a private residence.