The Diocese of Peterborough forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. Its seat is the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, which was originally founded as a monastery in AD 655 and re-built in its present form between 1118 and 1238.
The parts of the Peterborough unitary authority that are south of the River Nene and so, were in the historic county of Huntingdonshire, not the Soke of Peterborough, are within the Diocese of Ely. The Bishop of Peterborough has been commissioned as Assistant Bishop in the Ely Diocese so he can exercise pastoral care in these parishes, which include Stanground, Orton, Woodston, Yaxley and Fletton. Thorney, also in the Ely Diocese and within the boundaries of the Peterborough unitary authority, is unaffected by this arrangement.
Until 1927 the Peterborough Diocese covered what is now the Diocese of Leicester.
Peterborough Abbey became a cathedral at the Reformation, one of six wholly new bishoprics founded under Henry VIII. On 4 September 1541 letters patent were issued converting the abbey church of Peterborough into a cathedral church, with a dean and chapter and ecclesiastical staff. The last abbot, John Chambers, was consecrated in his former abbey church on 23 October 1541 as the first Bishop of Peterborough.