In 1901 Callington was made an urban district, having been in Liskeard Rural District since 1894, but in 1934 it was reduced to being a civil parish within St. Germans Rural District. Also in 1934 it absorbed a portion of the neighbouring parish of South Hill.
Callington parish had a population of 4,783 in 2001, according to the 2001 census. The hamlets of Bowling Green, Frogwell, Kelly Bray and Newbridge are in the parish.
Callington has been postulated as one of the possible locations of the ancient site of Celliwig, associated with King Arthur. Nearby ancient monuments include Castlewitch Henge with a diameter of 96m and Cadsonbury Iron Age hillfort, as well as Dupath Well built in 1510 on the site of an ancient sacred spring.
Callington was recorded in the Domesday Book (1086); the manor had 4 hides of land and land for 30 ploughs. The lord had land for 3 ploughs with 11 serfs. 24 villeins and 14 smallholders had land for 15 ploughs. There were also one and a half square leagues of pasture and a small amount of woodland. The income of the manor was £6 sterling.
In the 19th century, Callington was one of the most important mining areas in Great Britain. Deposits of silver were found nearby in Silver Valley. Today, the area is marked by mining remains, but there are no active mines. However, granite is still quarried on Hingston Down.
The former Callington constituency, a rotten borough, elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons but was abolished by the Reform Act 1832. The town is now in the South East Cornwall constituency.
St Mary's Church was originally a chapel of ease to South Hill; it was consecrated in 1438 and then had two aisles and a buttressed tower; a second north aisle was added in 1882. Unusually for Cornwall there is a clerestory; the wagon roofs are old. The parish church contains the fine brass of Nicholas Assheton and his wife, 1466.
One of the many maps available on A Vision of Britain through Time is one from the Ordnance Survey Series of 1900 illustrating the parish boundaries of Cornwall at the turn of the 20th century. This map blows up to show all the parishes and many of the small villages and hamlets.
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