Cairo is a town in Greene County, New York, United States. The population was 6,610 at the 2010 census. The town is in the south part of the county, partly in the Catskill Park. The town contains a hamlet also named Cairo.
The first settler arrived around 1772, but many new families moved in after the American Revolution. In 1803, the town of Cairo was formed from the towns of Catskill, Coxsackie, and Durham. Formerly known as Canton, the town's name was changed in 1808 to Cairo. The accepted pronunciation is "care-oh" and newcomers are quickly advised of this. From 1800 the Susquehannah Turnpike, a private toll road, ran through the town. The only railroad, the Canajoharie and Catskill Railroad, ran through the town, but only operated from about 1839 to 1842.