The Town of Arcadia is on the south border of the county and is east of Rochester, New York.
The town was first settled around 1791. The Town of Arcadia was formed from the Town of Lyons in 1825.
An asylum for the mentally retarded was established in Arcadia in 1789.
Hydesville, New York was a hamlet in the Town of Arcadia. It no longer exists, but was the hometown of the spiritualist Fox Sisters.
In 1957, the Bergen Swamp Preservation Society acquired Zurich Bog for conservation.
The town is part of the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor.