Person:Richard II of England (1)

Richard II of England
d.c. 14 Feb 1400 Yorkshire, England
Facts and Events
Name Richard II of England
Gender Male
Birth[1] 6 Jan 1367 Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, FranceAbbayedestandre
Marriage 31 Oct 1396 Calais, Pas-de-Calais, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, FranceSt. Nicholas' Church
to Isabella , de Valois, Queen of England
Will[3] 16 Apr 1399 Westminster Palace, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Death[1] c. 14 Feb 1400 Yorkshire, EnglandPontefract Castle
Burial? Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Richard II (6 January 1367 – ca. 14 February 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. Richard was the younger brother of Edward of Angoulême; upon the death of this elder brother, Richard—at four years of age—became second in line to the throne after his father. Upon the death of Richard's father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by agnatic succession, became the first in line for the throne. With Edward III's death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. The political community preferred this to a regency led by the king's uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. The young king played a major part in the successful suppression of this crisis. In the following years, however, the king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent in the political community, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of noblemen known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. Isabelle of France (1389-1409), oldest daughter of King Charles VI, was not quite seven years old when she married Richard II as his second wife in 1396. Then, in 1397, he took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Claiming initially that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, it soon became clear that he intended to claim the throne for himself. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity early the next year; he was probably murdered.

As an individual, Richard was said to have been tall, good-looking and intelligent. Though probably not insane, as earlier historians used to believe, he may have suffered from a personality disorder towards the end of his reign. Less of a warrior than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War that Edward III had started. He was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, something which led him to restrain the power of his nobility, and to rely on a private retinue for military protection instead. He also cultivated a courtly atmosphere in which the king was an elevated figure, and art and culture were at the centre, in contrast to the fraternal, martial court of his grandfather. Richard's posthumous reputation has to a large extent been shaped by Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and his deposition by Bolingbroke as responsible for the fifteenth-century Wars of the Roses. Present day historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. Most authorities agree that, even though his policies were not unprecedented or entirely unrealistic, the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, and this led to his downfall.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Richard II of England. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Richard II of England, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
  2.   Cokayne, George Edward, and Vicary Gibbs; et al. The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant [2nd ed.]. (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-59), Volume 3 page 173, Volume 3 page 437.
  3. Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 191 to 202.

    The will can be read here (in Latin).


Succession of Monarchs of the United Kingdom
Edward II

1307-1328
his great-grandfather

Edward III of England

1328-1377
his grandfather

King of England and Lord of Ireland

1377-1399

Henry IV

1399-1413
his first cousin

Henry V

1413-1422
Henry IV's son