Person:Nicholas II of Russia (1)

     
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Facts and Events
Name[1] Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Baptismal Name[1] Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov
Religious Name[1] Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer
Gender Male
Birth[1] 18 May 1868 Tsarskoye Selo, Saint Petersburg, RussiaHouse of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Engagement April 1894 Coburg, Coburg, Oberfranken, Bayern, Germanyto Alexandra Feodorovna
Title (nobility)[1] 1 November 1894-15 March 1917 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaEmperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Marriage 26 November 1894 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaGrand Church of the Winter Palace
to Alexandra Feodorovna
Residence August 1917 Tobolsk, Tyumen, Uralsky, Russiawith Alexandra Feodorovna
Residence May 1918 Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk, Uralsky, Russiawith Alexandra Feodorovna
Death[1] 17 Jul 1918 Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk, Uralsky, Russia
Burial[1][3] 17 July 1998 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaPeter and Paul Cathedral/Fortress


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Nicholas II ( – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. Like other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar (though Russia formally ended the Tsardom in 1721). He is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and has been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.

Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Political enemies nicknamed him Nicholas the Bloody because of the Khodynka Tragedy, alleged anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, his violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution, his execution of political opponents, and his pursuit of military campaigns on an unprecedented scale.[1]

Under his rule, Russia was humiliatingly defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, which saw the almost total annihilation of the Russian Baltic Fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. The Anglo-Russian Entente, designed to counter German attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, ended the Great Game between Russia and the United Kingdom. As head of state, Nicholas approved the Russian mobilisation of August 1914, which marked the beginning of Russia's involvement in the First World War, a war in which 3.3 million Russians were killed. The Imperial Army's severe losses and the High Command's incompetent handling of the war, along with other policies directed by Nicholas during his reign, are often cited as the leading causes of the fall of the Romanov dynasty.

Nicholas II abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917 during which he and his family were imprisoned first in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, then later in the Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk, and finally at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. In the spring of 1918, Nicholas was handed over to the local Ural soviet by commissar Vasili Yakovlev who was given a written receipt. Nicholas II; his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna; his son, Alexei Nikolaevich; his four daughters, Olga Nikolaevna, Tatiana Nikolaevna, Maria Nikolaevna and Anastasia Nikolaevna; the family's medical doctor, Evgeny Botkin; the Emperor's footman, Alexei Trupp; the Empress' maidservant, Anna Demidova; and the family's cook, Ivan Kharitonov, were executed in the same room by the Bolsheviks on the night of 16/17 July 1918. This led to the canonisation of Nicholas II, his wife the Empress Alexandra and their children as passion bearers, a category used to identify believers who, in imitation of Christ, endured suffering and death at the hands of political enemies, on 15 August 2000 by the Russian Orthodox Church within Russia and, in 1981, as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, located in New York City.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Nicholas II of Russia. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Nicholas II of Russia, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

    Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolai II, Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.[2] His official short title was Tsar Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias.[3] Like other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar (though Russia formally ended the Tsardom in 1721). He is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and has been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.

  2.   Nikolai II Aleksandrovich Romanov, Tsar of Russia, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  3. Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov, in FindAGrave: St. Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation, Memorial# 8100, Jan 11, 2000, Secondary quality.

    Birth: May 6, 1868, Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation
    Death: Jul. 17, 1918, Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation
    Burial: St. Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation
    Cause of death: Shot by Bolshevik firing squad