Facts and Events
Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 181122 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, Prince of Parma, of Placentia, and of Guastalla, known as Franz, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818 onward, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
By Title III, article 9 of the French Constitution of the time, he was Prince Imperial, but he was also known from birth as the King of Rome, which Napoleon I declared was the courtesy title of the heir apparent. His nickname of 'L'Aiglon' ("the Eaglet") was awarded posthumously and was popularized by the Edmond Rostand play, L'Aiglon.
When Napoleon I abdicated on 4 April 1814, he named his son as Emperor. However, the coalition partners that had defeated him refused to acknowledge his son as successor, thus Napoleon I was forced to abdicate unconditionally a number of days later. Although Napoleon François Bonaparte never actually ruled France, he was briefly the titular Emperor of the French and is still generally referred to by historians as Napoleon II.