Facts and Events
||Louis IX , of France
||25 Apr 1214/15
||Poissy, Yvelines, Île-de-France, FranceHouse of Capet
||From 1226 to 1270
||27 May 1234
||, Sens, Yvonne, Franceto Marguerite Berenger, of Provence
||25 AUG 1270
||Tunis, Tūnis, TunisiaDied of plague
||22 May 1271
||Saint Denis-de-l'Hôtel, Loiret, Centre, France(finger only)
||15 Aug 1297
||Vatican CityCanonization by Pope Bonafice VIII
||Tunis, Tūnis, Tunisiaremains
- the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached majority. During Louis's minority, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20 years earlier.
As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was defeated at the battle of Taillebourg. His reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy, Maine and Provence.
Louis's actions were inspired by Christian values. He decided to punish blasphemy, gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution, and bought the relics of Christ for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle. He had 12000 Jewish books, including ancient Talmuds, burned, and tried to forcefully convert the Jews of France.
Louis IX was also a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the supreme judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent private wars that were plaguing the country and introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure. To enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after a serious illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusade in which he died from dysentery. He was succeeded by his son Philip III.
A devout Catholic, he is the only canonized king of France. Consequently, there are many places named after him.
- Louis IX of France, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
- Penman, Sharon Kay. Falls the Shadow.
In October 1263 Henry III, Prince Edward "Longshanks" & Simon de Montfort asked Louis to mediate their dispute; Louis agreed in December 1263 & asked all parties to meet at Ameins on January 8, 1264. On the way, in December 1263, Simon fell from his horse & broke his leg, therefor Peter de Monfort & Simon's son Henry de Montfort went to Amiens in Simon's stead. Louis found in favor of Henry on all accounts & annulled the Oxford Provisions completely & totally while upholding the Runnymeade Charter (Magna Charta). It is thought Louis reacted as a King rather than as a judge, & since the barons stipulated that all foreigners were to cease as Henry's councillors, & said foreigners were mostly French, ergo he felt threatened. Louis was not to give judgement on the validity of the Oxford Provisions, if that had been known up front, de Montfort would never have agreed to arbitration. Simon took it as a betrayal by Louis, supposedly a man of "honor".
- Louis IX "King of France" De Valois, in Find A Grave.
- Louis IX, Roi de France, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
- LOUIS IX King of France, in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.