Test Results for the FTDNA Kilgore Project are found at WorldFamilies. The data presentation includes detailed lineages for each participant, where the test subject made it available. Of 28 participants, 24 provided sufficient information to evaluate family inter-relationships. A summary of test results by kit is provided at Data:Kilgore YDNA test Results Summary
Of the 28 test results in the Kilgore YDNA project, all but one correspond to the R1b1b2 haplogroup. The sole exception was for an E1b1a haplogroup, for a person with African American ancestry.
All YDNA test results, but one, as given in the FTDNA based Kilgore study showed a common haplogroup, R1b1b2, whose distribution is shown above. The single exception was a E1b1a haplogroup, and is not examined here. Some test subjects did not provide sufficient genealogical data to evaluate their family connections, and are ignored in the the following discussion. Based on the family data provided the Kilgores who have taken the YDNA test can be divided into a number of specific lines, as summarized below:
1. A group showing a common ancestor identified as James W. Kilgore, who settled in Cumberland County, PA before 1740
2. A group based in South Carolina by 1760, with related lineages in Kentucky and Georgia whose linkage to the South Carolina Group is unknown
3. A group showing several apparently independent importations to the United States.
The three main groupings shown above are based on the Kilgore YDNA project site groupings, and reflect common YDNA signatures. However, while the data seem to support three major YDNA groupings, those groupings do not differ significantly in terms of YDNA signatures. That is, when the signatures of each group are compared with the others, they show that all three groups share a relatively recent common ancestor. It is possible that the common ancestor was the original immigrant ancestor for all of these lines. That is, a single ancestor may have immigrated to America, and all of the Kilgores considered above descend from him. It is, however, more likely that there are multiple immigrant ancestors. It seems unlikely that that the line of Maine Kilgore's, with an importation date of 1720, could have given rise to the line of Kilgores in Old Chester County, present in that area by the 1730's. More likely, these lines represent two separate immigrant ancestors sharing a common ancestor, either in Ireland or Scotland, probably sometime in the 17th century. (If the common ancestor lay much further back than that, we'd expect to see much more variability in the YDNA signatures.)
At a minimum, the Maine Kilgores, and the Old Chester Kilgores, probably represent two independent importations. There may be several other independent immigrations during the colonial period. It is not at all clear that the Old Chester, Kilgores represent a single importation. There may be two or three importations involved in these lineages. It is not clear that the Kilgores in the Carolinas represent dispersion of the Old Chester Kilgores, or themselves represent independent importations. It may be possile to use details of the YDNA signatures of the various lines to evaluate this question. However, since all of these lines share a very similar YDNA signature, it seems likely that much more detailed YDNA test results will be needed to sort this out on the basis of those finer scale details.
It should be noted that the Maine Kilgore researchers make a decent (not definitive) case for Person:Joseph Kilgore (3) coming from Markinch, Fife, Scotland. This makes some sense, as Fife is thought by some to be the area where the Kilgore surname arose in the now extinct parish Kilgore, in Fife. This may indicate possible lines of research for other Kilgore researchers in the other lines sharing the same YDNA signature.