Place:Salem, Essex, Massachusetts, United States

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NameSalem
Alt namesNaamkeeksource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS25007291
Naumkeagsource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 814; USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS25007291
TypeCity
Coordinates42.517°N 70.899°W
Located inEssex, Massachusetts, United States     (1626 - )
Contained Places
Cemetery
Broad Street Cemetery ( 1655 - )
Burying Point Cemetery ( 1637 - )
Harmony Grove Cemetery ( 1840 - )
Old Burial Hill Cemetery ( 1629 - 1649 )
Prescott Memorial ( - 1757 )
Saint Mary's Cemetery
Inhabited place
Wenham ( 1635 - 1643 )
Neighborhood
Rial Side ( 1626 - 1658 )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Salem is a historic coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, located in the North Shore region. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history.

The city is home to the House of Seven Gables, Salem State University, the headquarters of The Satanic Temple, Salem Willows, Pioneer Village, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, and the Peabody Essex Museum. It also features historic residential neighborhoods in the Federal Street District and the Charter Street Historic District. Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, Downtown Salem District, the Point, South Salem, North Salem, Blubber Hollow, Witchcraft Heights, and the McIntire Historic District named after Salem's famous architect Samuel McIntire.

Much of the city's cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the infamous Salem witch trials of 1692, as featured in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a public elementary school is known as Witchcraft Heights, and the Salem High School athletic teams are named the Witches; Gallows Hill was originally believed to be the site of numerous public hangings, and it is currently used as a playing field for various sports.

In 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem for their inaugural "Best Shopping District" award. On January 10, 2013, President Obama signed executive order HR1339 designating Salem as the birthplace of the U.S. National Guard. The city's population was 41,340 at the 2010 census.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Salem is located at the mouth of the Naumkeag River at the site of an Indian village and trading center. European colonists first settled it in 1626, when a company of fishermen arrived from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant. Conant's leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but John Endecott replaced him by order of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Conant graciously stepped aside and was granted of land in compensation. These "New Planters" and the "Old Planters"[1] agreed to cooperate, in large part due to the diplomacy of Conant and Endecott. In recognition of this peaceful transition to the new government, the name of the settlement was changed to Salem, a hellenized form of the Hebrew word for "peace" (שלום, shalom).

In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great House be moved from Cape Ann, reassembling it on Washington Street north of Church Street. Francis Higginson wrote that "we found a faire house newly built for the Governor" which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London and Endecott as its governor in the colony. John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, one of the many events that began the Puritan Great Migration.

In 1639, Endecott was one of the signers on the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the first church in Salem. This document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, which is the original Puritan church in America. Endecott already had a close relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him, and Endecott considered him as his spiritual father.


One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations, which started with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, and their friends playing with a Venus glass (mirror) and egg. The Salem Witchcraft Trials began in 1692, and 20 people were executed as a result of the accusations of witchcraft. Salem is also significant in legal history as the site of the Dorothy Talbye Trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter because Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity and criminal behavior.

William Hathorne was a prosperous businessman in early Salem and became one of its leading citizens of the early colonial period. He led troops to victory in King Philip's War, served as a magistrate on the highest court, and was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Deputies. He was a zealous advocate of the personal rights of freemen against royal emissaries and agents. His son Judge John Hathorne came to prominence in the late 17th century when witchcraft was a serious felony. Judge Hathorne is the best known of the witch trial judges, and he became known as the "Hanging Judge" for sentencing witches to death.

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