Place:Oklahoma, United States

NameOklahoma
Alt namesOKsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1257
Okl
Okla
TypeState
Coordinates35°N 98°W
Located inUnited States     (1907 - )
Also located inOklahoma Territory, United States     (1890 - 1907)
Contained Places
County
Adair ( 1907 - )
Alfalfa ( 1907 - )
Atoka ( 1907 - )
Beaver ( 1890 - )
Beckham ( 1907 - )
Blaine ( 1892 - )
Bryan ( 1907 - )
Caddo ( 1901 - )
Canadian ( 1889 - )
Carter ( 1907 - )
Cherokee ( 1907 - )
Choctaw ( 1907 - )
Cimarron ( 1907 - )
Cleveland ( 1889 - )
Coal ( 1907 - )
Comanche ( 1901 - )
Cotton ( 1912 - )
Craig ( 1907 - )
Creek ( 1907 - )
Custer ( 1892 - )
Delaware ( 1907 - )
Dewey ( 1892 - )
Ellis ( 1907 - )
Garfield ( 1893 - )
Garvin ( 1907 - )
Grady ( 1907 - )
Grant ( 1893 - )
Greer ( 1886 - )
Harmon ( 1909 - )
Harper ( 1909 - )
Haskell ( 1907 - )
Hughes ( 1907 - )
Jackson ( 1907 - )
Jefferson ( 1907 - )
Johnston ( 1907 - )
Kay ( 1895 - )
Kingfisher ( 1890 - )
Kiowa ( 1901 - )
Latimer ( 1902 - )
Le Flore ( 1907 - )
Lincoln ( 1891 - )
Logan ( 1889 - )
Love ( 1907 - )
Major ( 1907 - )
Marshall ( 1907 - )
Mayes ( 1907 - )
McClain ( 1907 - )
McCurtain ( 1907 - )
McIntosh ( 1907 - )
Murray ( 1907 - )
Muskogee ( 1907 - )
Noble ( 1893 - )
Nowata ( 1907 - )
Okfuskee ( 1907 - )
Oklahoma ( 1890 - )
Okmulgee ( 1907 - )
Osage ( 1907 - )
Ottawa ( 1907 - )
Pawnee ( 1892 - )
Payne ( 1890 - )
Pittsburg ( 1907 - )
Pontotoc ( 1907 - )
Pottawatomie ( 1891 - )
Pushmataha ( 1907 - )
Roger Mills ( 1892 - )
Rogers ( 1907 - )
Seminole ( 1907 - )
Sequoyah ( 1907 - )
Stephens ( 1907 - )
Texas ( 1907 - )
Tillman ( 1907 - )
Tulsa ( 1907 - )
Wagoner ( 1908 - )
Washington ( 1907 - )
Washita ( 1892 - )
Woods ( 1893 - )
Woodward ( 1893 - )
Federal district
Southern District
Former county
Day ( 1892 - )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Oklahoma (; , ogalahoma; ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States,[1] bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words and , meaning "red people".[2] It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially, "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.[3] Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.

With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather.[4] More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma,[5] ranking third behind Alaska and California.

Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Evidence suggests indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma as early as the last ice age. Ancestors of the Wichita, Kichai, Teyas, Escanjaques, and Caddo lived in what is now Oklahoma. Southern Plains villagers lived in the central and west of the state, with a subgroup, the Panhandle culture people living in panhandle region. Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. Spiro Mounds, in what is now Spiro, Oklahoma, was a major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450.

The Spaniard Francisco Vázquez de Coronado traveled through the state in 1541, but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s. In the 18th century, Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche entered the region from the west and Quapaw and Osage peoples moved into what is now eastern Oklahoma. French colonists claimed the region until 1803, when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River was purchased by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.[6]

The territory now known as Oklahoma was first a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828.

During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed from the Southeastern United States. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal.

Seventeen thousand Cherokees and 2,000 of their black slaves were deported. The area, already occupied by Osage and Quapaw tribes, was called for the Choctaw Nation until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans. By 1890, more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within Indian Territory or "Indian Country".

All Five Civilized Tribes supported and signed treaties with the Confederate military during the American Civil War. The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war. Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866.

In the period between 1866 and 1899,[6] cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner. Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory.[6] In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory.

Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase.


Major land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time. Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis. Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term sooners, which eventually became the state's official nickname.

Deliberations to make the territory into a state began near the end of the 19th century, when the Curtis Act continued the allotment of Indian tribal land.

20th and 21st centuries

Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which took place two years later. On June 16, 1906, Congress enacted a statute authorizing the people of the Oklahoma and Indian Territories (as well what would become the states of Arizona and New Mexico) to form a constitution and state government in order to be admitted as a state. On November 16, 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation no. , establishing Oklahoma as the 46th state in the Union.


The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy. In 1927, Oklahoman businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66", began the campaign to create U.S. Route 66. Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo, Texas to Tulsa, Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa.

Oklahoma also has a rich African-American history. Many black towns thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states, especially Kansas. The politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory. He discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-black state.

By the early 20th century, the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa was one of the most prosperous African-American communities in the United States. Jim Crow laws had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century, but the blacks had created a thriving area.

Social tensions were exacerbated by the revival of the Ku Klux Klan after 1915. The Tulsa Race Riot broke out in 1921, with whites attacking blacks. In one of the costliest episodes of racial violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage, and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people. By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had declined to negligible influence within the state.

During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practice. This period was known as the Dust Bowl, throughout which areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma were hampered by long periods of little rainfall, strong winds, and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States. Over a twenty-year period ending in 1950, the state saw its only historical decline in population, dropping 6.9 percent as impoverished families migrated out of the state after the Dust Bowl.

Soil and water conservation projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation. By the 1960s, Oklahoma had created more than 200 lakes, the most in the nation.[4]

In 1995, Oklahoma City was the site of one of the most destructive acts of domestic terrorism in American history. The Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, in which Timothy McVeigh detonated a large, crude explosive device outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people, including 19 children. For his crime, McVeigh was executed by the federal government on June 11, 2001. His accomplice, Terry Nichols, is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive.

On May 31, 2016, several cities experienced record setting flooding.

Timeline

YearEventSource
1862Boomers move to unassigned lands in Oklahoma known as the Homestead ActSource:Wikipedia
1887Congress passes Dawes Act also known as General Allotment ActSource:Wikipedia
1890Oklahoma's first censusSource:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
1907Oklahoma becomes 46th State in the UnionSource:Wikipedia
1931Red River WarSource:Wikipedia
1936Start of the Dust Bowl EraSource:Wikipedia

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1890 258,657
1900 790,391
1907 1,414,177
1910 1,657,155
1920 2,028,283
1930 2,396,040
1940 2,336,434
1950 2,233,351
1960 2,328,284
1970 2,559,229
1980 3,025,290
1990 3,145,585

Note Before Statehood

Note: Oklahoma was acquired by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. It soon became an area of settlement for various Indian tribes displaced from States farther east, and was known as the Indian Territory although it had various tribal governments rather than a central administration. Many non-Indians also settled in the area. Oklahoma Territory was established from a part of the Indian Territory in 1890 and expanded in 1893; the tribal jurisdictions continued in the remainder. On November 16, 1907 the two parts were admitted as the State of Oklahoma, with substantially the current boundaries. A dispute about the western boundary was settled in Texas' favor by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1930. Census coverage did not systematically include any of present-day Oklahoma until 1890; some Indian areas were first enumerated in 1900. In 1860 non-Indians were enumerated but not included in official population totals; non-Indians in the area in 1870 and 1880 were not enumerated. The 1890 total is for Oklahoma Territory (78,475) and Indian Territory (180,182); and the 1900 total is for Oklahoma Territory (398,331) and Indian Territory (392,060). Just prior to statehood, the U.S. Census Bureau took a special census on July 1, 1907, showing a total population of 1,414,177 (Oklahoma Territory, 733,062; Indian Territory, 681,115); results of this special census are included in the Oklahoma table.. Population for 1890 is total of Oklahoma Territory (78,475, including 3,569 non-Indians on Indian reservations but not reported by reservation) and Indian Territory (180,182, including 861 not reported by nation or reservation). Population for 1900 is total of Oklahoma Territory (398,331) and Indian Territory (392,060).. Population for 1907 is total according to special census of Oklahoma Territory (733,062) and Indian Territory (681,115, including 9,155 not reported by nation or reservation) taken as of July 1, 1907. The 1907 data are given both for the subdivisions of Indian Territory existing on July 1 and for the counties into which the new State was divided later in that year.

Research Tips

Births, Marriages, and Deaths

FamilySearch.org has a variety of collections available for free online:

Research Guides

Outstanding guide to Oklahoma family history and genealogy (FamilySearch Research Wiki). Birth, marriage, and death records, wills, deeds, county records, archives, Bible records, cemeteries, churches, censuses, directories, immigration lists, naturalizations, maps, history, newspapers, and societies.


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Oklahoma. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.