Place:Norrbotten, Sweden

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NameNorrbotten
Alt namesNorrbottens län
Norrbottensource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Norrbottens Länsource: NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
Norrbottens länsource: Wikipedia
TypeCounty
Coordinates65.5°N 21.5°E
Located inSweden
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Norrbotten County is the northernmost county or län of Sweden. It borders Västerbotten County to the southwest, the Gulf of Bothnia to the southeast. It also borders the counties of Nordland and Troms in Norway to the northwest, and Lapland Province in Finland to the northeast.

The name "Norrbotten" is also used for a province of the same name. Norrbotten province covers only the eastern part of Norrbotten County – the inland mostly belongs to the Swedish Lapland province (Lappland).

The northern part of Norrbotten lies within the Arctic Circle.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

During the Middle Ages, Norrbotten was considered to be terra nullius ("no man's land"). The area was sparsely populated by Sami, Kvens and different tribes/people related to the Finns. From the Middle Ages on, the Swedish kings tried hard to colonise and Christianise the area. This took time, however; even today, there are Finnish and Sami minorities living in the area, who have maintained their own culture and customs.

Following the Finnish War in 1809, Västerbotten County was split between Sweden and Finland, with the larger part remaining within the Swedish borders. In 1810, the county was divided again when Norrbotten County was created out of the northern part, on the Swedish side. Most people in Norrbotten County still refer to the entire county, including the areas in Swedish Lapland, when they say 'Norrbotten', which is also the name of a smaller province for practical and historical reasons, which do not imply that they would not prefer to use the name Lapland.

The natural resources (hydroelectricity, timber, and minerals, especially iron) of Norrbotten have played a key role in the industrialization of Sweden, all through the 20th century the region saw strong mobility in and out of the county, many young people moving south and people from other parts of the country moving in. In the 1970s and 1980s the drainage of (mostly young) workers was very powerful, due to high unemployment, and people in the area began to occasionally voice feelings of being misunderstood or economically abused by the south and especially the capital Stockholm.

Heraldry

The coat of arms of Norrbotten County combines the arms of the provinces Västerbotten and Lappland and was granted in 1949. Since 1995 the province Norrbotten has a coat of arms of its own, but the county arms have not been changed accordingly. When it is shown with a royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Quartered, the arms of Västerbotten and the arms of Lappland."

Culture

The culture of Norrbotten County is in many ways different from the rest of Sweden, since so many different cultures can be found there; the Sami culture, the Finnish culture (Tornedalians) and the Swedish settler-culture (combined with the climate, midnight sun, and mid winter darkness). Many of the old local Swedish and Finnish dialects have survived in the area, and are spoken by a great number of people. The people of Norrbotten County have a saying: "I am not a Swede; I am a Norrbothnian". A laconic and, at first glance, uncommunicative way of speaking, coupled with understated irony, is also sometimes used as a means to hold off the southerners, who are seen as more slick and deceptive in their ways with words and eager to twist things their way. These contrasts are well known throughout Sweden and often appear in TV, films, literature and folklore connected to Norrbotten, for characterizing, satiric or dramatic purposes (e.g. some characters in the books of Eyvind Johnson or the police detective Einar Rönn in the crime novels of Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö).

The coast has the historical cities of Luleå and Piteå. Luleå's Gammelstad ("Old town"), which is 10 km north of the present downtown, has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Languages: Apart from Swedish Sami, Meänkieli, and Finnish may be used in dealing with government agencies, courts, municipalities, preschools and nursing homes in parts of Norrbotten County. Sami language has an official minority language status in Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk, and Kiruna municipalities. Finnish has the same status in Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, and Övertorneå municipalities.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Norrbotten County. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.