Place:London (City of), London, England

NameLondon (City of)
Alt namesCity of London
TypeCity, Borough (metropolitan)
Coordinates51.514°N 0.098°W
Located inLondon, England     (1889 - 1965)
Also located inMiddlesex, England     ( - 1889)
Greater London, England     (1965 - )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names

Image:Greater London.png

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The City of London is a city and ceremonial county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the conurbation has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. It is one of two districts of London to hold city status; the other is the adjacent City of Westminster.

The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City (often written as just "City" and differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising "City") and is also colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City.

The name "London" is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City. "London" often denotes the Greater London administrative area (which covers the whole of the London region of England), comprising 32 boroughs (including the City of Westminster), in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of "London" is documented as far back as the 16th century.

The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries. The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from (and much older than) the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor of the City of London is elected annually and is seldom held for more than one year.

The City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was perhaps the world's primary business centre, and it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008. The insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf, to the east.

The City has a resident population of about 7,000 (2011) but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City, especially in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary.

History

For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article City_of_London.

Divisions of the City before 1889

The City of London, prior to 1889, was an (independent) city with its own police force and and with the poor law acting within its own jurisdiction. There were about 100 ecclesiastical parishes, some of which has existed for centuries. The parishes varyied in size, both in acreage and population. Over centuries there were mergers of parishes--these are usually indicated by being dedicated to more than one saint.

In 1861 the following 106 parishes comprised the City of London. This included a few that were actually outside the walls. Listed with their respective population in 1861, they are:

Name of Parish Type Duration Population 1861
All Hallows, Barking parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889
All Hallows, Bread Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889
All Hallows, Honey Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889
All Hallows, Lombard Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 415
All Hallows, London Wall parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,999
All Hallows, Staining parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 358
All Hallows the Great parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889
All Hallows the Less parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 79
Christ Church, Newgate Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,975
Holy Trinity the Less parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 553
St. Alban, Wood Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889
St. Alphage London Wall parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 699
St. Andrew by the Wardrobe parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 682
St. Andrew, Holborn parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 6,337
St. Andrew, Hubbard parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 205
St. Andrew, Undershaft parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,071
St. Ann and St. Agnes parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 362
St. Ann, Blackfriars parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 2,615
St. Antholin parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 263
St. Augustine, Watling Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 110
St. Bartholomew the Great extra parochial area, parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 3,426
St. Bartholomew the Less extra parochial area, chapelry, civil parish until 1889 849
St. Bartholomew by the Exchange parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 236
St. Benet, Fink parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 213
St. Benet, Gracechurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 278
St. Benet, Pauls Wharf parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 537
St. Benet, Sherehog parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 114
St. Botolph without Aldgate extra parochial area, parish (ancient), civil parish 9,421
St. Botolph Aldersgate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 4,744
St. Botolph by Billingsgate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 222
St. Botolph without Bishopsgate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 11,569
St. Bride parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 5,660
St. Christopher le Stocks parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 23
St. Clement, Eastcheap parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 198
St. Dionis, Backchurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 534
St. Dunstan in the East parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 971
St. Dunstan in the West parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 2,511
St. Edmund the King and Martyr parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 333
St. Ethelburga parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 606
St. Faith under St. Pauls parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 761
St. Gabriel, Fenchurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 178
St. George, Botolph Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 217
St. Giles, Cripplegate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 13,498
St. Gregory by St. Pauls parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,154
St. Helen, Bishopsgate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 558
St. James, Garlickhithe parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 461
St. John the Baptist, Walbrook parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 132
St. John the Evangelist, Friday Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 27
St. John, Zachary parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 132
St. Katherine, Coleman parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 444
St. Katherine, Cree parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,794
St. Lawrence, Jewry parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 410
St. Lawrence, Pountney parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 233
St. Leonard, Eastcheap parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 111
St. Leonard, Foster Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 297
St. Magnus the Martyr parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 197
St. Margaret, Lothbury parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 164
St. Margaret, Moses parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 137
St. Margaret, New Fish Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 317
St. Margaret, Pattens parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 103
St. Martin, Ludgate parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 1,080
St. Martin, Orgar parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 296
St. Martin, Outwich parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 165
St. Martin, Pomeroy parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 185
St. Martin, Vintry parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 244
St. Mary, Abchurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 264
St. Mary, Aldermanbury parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 443
St. Mary, Aldermary parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 232
St. Mary at Hill parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 738
St. Mary, Bothaw parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 161
St. Mary, Colechurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 164
St. Mary le Bow parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 317
St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 125
St. Mary Magdalene, Old Fish Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 732
St. Mary, Mounthaw parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 474
St. Mary, Somerset parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 271
St. Mary, Staining parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 161
St. Mary, Woolchurch parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 102
St. Mary, Woolnoth parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 291
St. Matthew, Friday Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 167
St. Michael, Bassishaw parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 501
St. Michael, Cornhill parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 371
St. Michael, Crooked Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 323
St. Michael le Querne parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 74
St. Michael, Paternoster Royal parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 169
St. Michael, Queenhithe parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 548
St. Michael, Wood Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 214
St. Mildred, Bread Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 86
St. Mildred, Poultry parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 257
St. Nicholas, Acons parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 168
St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 230
St. Nicholas, Olave parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 355
St. Olave, Hart Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 757
St. Olave, Old Jewry parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 143
St. Olave, Silver Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 527
St. Pancras, Soper Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 76
St. Peter, Cornhill parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 533
St. Peter le Poer parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 540
St. Peter, Pauls Wharf parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 410
St. Peter, Westcheap parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 148
St. Stephen, Coleman Street parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 3,324
St. Stephen, Wallbrook parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 300
St. Swithin, London Stone parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 297
St. Thomas Apostle parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 112
St. Vedast, Foster Lane parish (ancient), civil parish until 1889 278
St. James, Dukes Place civil parish until 1889 851
St. Sepulchre without Newgate civil parish 7,475

In addition there were the Inns of Court and Precincts, which were both types of extra-parochial places (populations were not always available):

Name of Inn or Precinct Type Duration Population 1861
Barnards Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889
Clements Inn extra parochial area
Cliffords Inn extra parochial area 148
Furnivals Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889 81
Grays Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889 75
Inner Temple extra parochial area until 1889 69
Lincolns Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889
Middle Temple extra parochial area until 1889
New Inn extra parochial area
Serjeants Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889
Staple Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889
Thavies Inn extra parochial area, civil parish until 1890 185
Bridewell Precinct extra parochial area, chapelry, civil parish until 1889 410
Whitefriars Precinct extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889 1,155
Holy Trinity Minories extra parochial area, civil parish until 1889


Greater London Research Tips

A reminder that Greater London was formed in 1965 and covers a much greater territory than the County of London formed in 1900. The City of London is only a part of the County of London. A map of the boroughs of Greater London is reproduced on all Greater London borough pages. A map of the boroughs of the County of London is reproduced on all County of London borough pages.

Researching ancestors in London will probably be more successful than researching ancestors in the rest of England, particularly for the period before 1837 and the advent of civil registration. Baptisms, marriages and burials are available online for County of London parishes, and possibly for parishes throughout Greater London as well.

  • Anglican Parishes in London is a wiki here on WeRelate listing the places of worship of the established church throughout London. The churches are grouped within the post-1965 boroughs and for each is the street address, a link to the Booth Map (inner boroughs only), the time span for which the database AIM25 holds records, the FamilySearch Wiki link (see below), the Wikipedia link, and further notes. This is a work-in-progress and not all churches are listed as yet, but it is a guide to a great deal more information on those for which information has been gathered.
  • The London Metropolitan Archives (40 Northampton Road, Clerkenwell, London EC1R 0HB) holds records relating to the whole of Greater London. Ancestry (subscription necessary) has produced transcriptions and provides images of lists of baptisms, marriages, and burials in churches across Greater London. Many of these lists start in 1813 and stretch into the 20th century; some start even earlier.

Maps

  • A street-by-street map of London (both sides of the Thames, and stretching from Limehouse and Stepney in the east to Hyde Park and Kensington in the west) drawn by Edward Mogg in 1806. Blows up to a very readable level.
  • Ordnance Survey map of London 1900 (provided online by A Vision of Britain through Time) showing London parishes just after the reorganization of 1899. The map was originally drawn over a street map at a scale of 1 inch to the mile and can be blown up to inspect a single borough.
  • Ordnance Survey map of Middlesex 1900 (provided online by A Vision of Britain through Time) showing Middlesex parishes just after the reorganization of 1899 when much of the former area of Middlesex had been transferred into London.
  • Ordnance Survey map of Surrey 1900 (provided online by A Vision of Britain through Time) showing Surrey parishes (chiefly Southwark) just after the reorganization of 1899 when the most urban parts of Surrey were transferred into London.
  • Ordnance Survey map of Kent 1900 (provided online by A Vision of Britain through Time) showing Kent parishes just after the reorganization of 1899 when the western part of Kent had been transferred into London.

Registration Districts

  • Registration Districts in London, Registration Districts in Middlesex, Registration Districts in Surrey, Registration Districts in Kent, are lists of the registration districts used for civil registration (births, marriages and deaths, as well as the censuses). There are linked supporting lists of the parishes which made up each registration district, the dates of formation and abolition of the districts, the General Register Office numbers, and the local archive-holding place. This work has been carried out by Brett Langston under the agency of GENUKI (Genealogy United Kingdom and Ireland) and UKBMD - Births, Marriages, Deaths & Censuses on the Internet. The names of the individual registration districts are "places" within WeRelate and can be used where the only information has been obtained from UKBMD.

Cemeteries

  • Deceased Online includes four of the "Magnificent Seven" cemeteries (Brompton, Highgate, Kensal Green, and Nunhead) in its inventory of 65 London cemeteries. Transcripts for Abney Park are free with registration online at www.devsys.co.uk/ap/. Ancestry (international subscription necessary) has "London, England, City of London and Tower Hamlets Cemetery Registers, 1841-1966". That leaves West Norwood without comprehensive online access to burial records. (Deceased Online and Ancestry may have increased their provision since this was written in 2016.)

Other online sources

  • See the FamilySearch Wiki under "London" and also under "Middlesex", "Surrey" and "Kent" for key information about Greater London's jurisdictions and records, plus links to indexes, reference aids and Family History Library holdings.
  • GENUKI has a long list of websites and archive holders in addition to London Metropolitan Archives above. (The list from GENUKI is not maintained so well that there is never a dead link in it. However, it is often worth googling the title given on the page just in case the contributor has reorganized their website and GENUKI has not picked it up.)
  • GENUKI also has a list of the Archives and Local Studies Libraries for each of the boroughs of Greater London.
  • The London Encyclopaedia by Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert. An e-book available online through Google, originally published by Pan Macmillan. There is a search box in the left-hand pane.
  • London Lives. A very useful free website for anyone researching their London ancestors between the years 1690-1800. This is a fully searchable edition of 240,000 manuscripts from eight archives and fifteen datasets, giving access to 3.35 million names.
  • London Ancestor, a website belonging to one of the London family history societies, has a list of transcriptions of directories from the 18th century, listing in one case "all the squares, streets, lanes, courts, yards, alleys, &C. in and about Five Miles of the Metropolis..." In other parts of the same website are maps of various parts of 19th century London and Middlesex.
  • The proceedings of the Old Bailey, London's central criminal court, 1674-1913. A fully searchable edition of the largest body of texts detailing the lives of non-elite people ever published, containing 197,745 criminal trials held at London's central criminal court. This website is free to use.
This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at City of London. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.