Place:Kaliningrad, Severo-zapadny, Russia

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NameKaliningrad
Alt namesKaliningradsource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeOblast
Located inSevero-zapadny, Russia     (1945 - )
Also located inOstpreußen, Preußen, Germany    
See alsoKönigsberg, Ostpreußen, Preußen, Germany
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Bagrationovsk
Baltiysk
Bol'shakovo
Chernyakhovsk ( 1330 - )
Chernyshevskoye
Dobrovol'sk
Gur'yevsk
Gusev
Gvardeysk
Insterburg ( 1945 - )
Kaliningrad ( 1286 - )
Krasnolesye
Krasnoznamensk
Ladushkin
Mamonovo
Neman
Neringa
Nesterov
Novostroyevo
Oz'orsk
Ozyorsk
Pionerskiy
Polessk
Powunden ( 1946 - )
Pravdinsk
Primorje
Primorsk
Rybachiy
Rybachy
Slavsk
Sovetsk
Svetlogorsk
Svetlyy
Timiryazevo
Yantarnyy
Yasnaya Polyana
Zalesye
Zapovednoye
Zelenogradsk
Zheleznodorzhnyy
Zhilino
Znamensk
Unknown
Allenberg
Almenhausen
Alt Budupönen
Alt Lappönen
Althof
Arnau
Auglitten
Bieberswalde
Bol'shaya Polyana
Bol'shiye Berezhki
Bol'shoye Selo
Bothenen
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Budweitschen
Buylien
Chekhovo
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Deutsch Thierau
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Friedenberg
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Groß Engelau
Groß Friedrichsberg
Groß Friedrichsgraben 1
Groß Karschau
Groß Legitten
Groß Ottenhagen
Groß Schönau
Grünhayn
Grünhoff
Grünweitschen
Gudwallen
Gvardeyskoye
Haffstrom
Heiligenwalde
Ischdaggen
Jesau
Juditten
Judtschen
Kalinino
Kalinovka
Kaluzhskoye
Kamensk
Kanash
Kaporn
Karben
Khrabrovo
Kiauten
Klein Brittanien
Klein Friedrichsgraben
Klein Schönau
Komsomol'sk
Kornëvo
Kragau
Krasnogorskoye
Krasnopolyanskoye
Kremitten (Kr. Wehlau)
Kremitten
Krylovo
Kumachëvo
Kunzen
Kwednau
Königsfelde
Laugallen
Lesgewangminnen
Lesistoye
Levoberezhskoye
Lichtenhagen
Linkuhnen
Lochstädt
Logvino
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Lugovoye
Lunino
Mahnsfeld
Malomozhayskoye
Matrosowo
Mayakovskoye
Maygunischken
Mayskoye
Mayëvka
Mazurskiy
Mezhdurech'ye
Moulienen
Mozyr'
Muromskoye
Mysovka
Nemonien
Neu Trakehnen
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Neunischken
Nevskoye
Nizov'ye
Obehlischken
Ol'khovatka
Ozërsk
Perevalovo
Petersdorf
Peterstal
Petricken
Pillau
Plibischken
Pobedino
Podgorovka
Pogranichnyy
Porech′e
Pravdino
Prichaly
Priozërskoye
Prokhladnoye
Puschdorf
Pushkino
Pyatidorozhnoye
Pörschken
Romanovo
Rudau
Russkoye
Sadweitschen
Sankt Lorenz
Saranskoye
Sarkau
Schaaken
Schillgallen
Schmoditten
Schönwalde
Seligenfeld
Sevskoye
Shirokoye
Slavinsk
Slavskoye
Sodargen
Sommerau
Sovkhoznoye
Starkenberg
Steinbeck
Svetloye
Talpaki
Thierenberg
Tishino
Tolmingkemsk
Tolstoye
Ul'yanovo
Ushakovo
Uszpiaunen
Vesëloye
Villyunen
Vladimirov
Volodarovka
Vysokoye
Vzmor'ye
Vësnovo
Waldaukadel
Wandlacken
Wargen
Weedern (Kr. Darkehmen)
Weedern (Kr. Ragnit)
Wilhelmsberg
Yaroslavskoye
Yasnoye
Zabolotnoye
Zagorsk
Zales'ye
Zalivnoye
Zarech'ye
Zavety
Zelënopol'ye
Zheleznodorozhnyy
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Kaliningrad Oblast (Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad, formerly known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873.

The oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland to the south and Lithuania to the east and north, so residents may only travel visa-free to the rest of Russia via sea or air. The territory was formerly the northern part of East Prussia, with the southern part now being Poland's Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. Following the post-war migration and Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), the territory was populated with citizens from the Soviet Union. Today virtually no ethnic Germans remain; most of the several thousand who live there are recent immigrants from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

Early in the 21st century, the hitherto fledgling economy of Kaliningrad Oblast became one of the best performing economies in Russia. This was helped by a low manufacturing tax rate related to its "Special Economic Zone" (SEZ) status. , one in three televisions manufactured in Russia came from Kaliningrad. The territory's population was one of the few in Russia that was expected to show strong growth after the collapse of the USSR.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, the territory of what is now Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited by tribes of Old Prussians (Sambians) in the western part and by Lithuanians in the eastern part. The tribes were divided by the rivers Pregolya and Alna. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state. On the foundations of a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the city of Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad). Germans resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. Speakers of the old Baltic languages became extinct around the 17th century, having been assimilated and Germanised.

Pre-Modern Period

In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia. The duchy was nominally a fief of the Polish crown. It later merged with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Königsberg was the duchy's capital from 1525 until 1701. As the centre of Prussia moved westward, the position of the capital became too peripheral and Berlin became the new Prussian capital city. During the Seven Years' War it was occupied by the Russian Empire. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The territory of the Kaliningrad Oblast lies in the northern part of East Prussia. The annexation of the territory, while supposedly on a temporary basis, was approved by the "Big Three" allied leaders of World War II in the Potsdam Agreement in 1945. Three years after the annexation by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the remaining two-thirds of East Prussia was annexed by Poland and is today organised into the Warmian-Masurian province.

Modern period

Historical ethnic and religious structure

In year 1824, shortly before its merger with West Prussia, the population of East Prussia was 1,080,000 people. Of that number, according to Karl Andree, Germans were slightly more than half, while 280,000 (~26%) were ethnically Polish and 200,000 (~19%) were ethnically Lithuanian. As of year 1819 there were also 20,000 strong ethnic Curonian and Latvian minorities as well as 2,400 Jews, according to Georg Hassel. Similar numbers are given by August von Haxthausen in his 1839 book, with a breakdown by county. However, the majority of East Prussian Polish and Lithuanian inhabitants were Lutherans, not Roman Catholics like their ethnic kinsmen across the border in the Russian Empire. Only in Southern Warmia (German: Ermland) Catholic Poles - so called Warmiaks (not to be confused with predominantly Protestant Masurians) - comprised the majority of population, numbering 26,067 people (~81%) in county Allenstein (Polish: Olsztyn) in 1837.[1] Another minority in 19th century East Prussia, were ethnically Russian Old Believers, also known as Philipponnen - their main town was Eckersdorf (Wojnowo).

In year 1817, East Prussia had 796,204 Evangelical Christians, 120,123 Roman Catholics, 864 Mennonites and 2,389 Jews.

German culture and Germanization

East Prussia was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant and E. T. A. Hoffmann, came from this region. Despite being heavily damaged during World War II and thereafter, the cities of the oblast still contain examples of German architecture. The Jugendstil style showcases the rich German history and cultural importance of the area.

By the early 20th century, Lithuanians formed a majority only in rural parts of the north-eastern corner of East Prussia (Memelland and Lithuania Minor). A similar fate befell the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki who had settled the coast of East Prussia between Gdańsk and Klaipėda. The rest of the area, with the exception of the Slavic Masurians in southern Prussia, was overwhelmingly German-speaking.

The Memel Territory (Klaipėda region), formerly part of north-eastern East Prussia as well as Lithuania Minor, was annexed by Lithuania in 1923. In 1938, Nazi Germany radically altered about a third of the place names of this area, replacing Old Prussian and Lithuanian names with newly invented German names. Slavic and Jewish populations under Nazi Germany were classified as subhuman and were the target of a campaign of genocide by the German state, with the eventual goal of their extermination.

Conquest by the Soviet Union

On August 29, 1944, Soviet troops reached the border of East Prussia. By January 1945, they had overrun all East Prussia except for the area around Königsberg. Many inhabitants fled west at this time. During the last days of the war, over two million people fled before the Red Army and were evacuated by sea. Under the terms of the Potsdam Agreement, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at a peace settlement. This final determination never took place. The excerpt pertaining to the partition of East Prussia including the area surrounding Königsberg is as follows (note that Königsberg is spelt "Koenigsberg" in the original document):

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement, the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg - Goldep, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia. The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier. The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.

Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 in memory of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin. The remaining German population was forcibly expelled between 1947 and 1948. The conquered territory was populated with citizens of the Soviet Union, mostly ethnic Russians but to a lesser extent by Ukrainians and Belarusians.

The German language was replaced with the Russian language. In 1950, there were 1,165,000 inhabitants, which was only half the number of the pre-war population.

Cold War period

The city was rebuilt during the Cold War. The territory became strategically important as the headquarters of the Soviet Baltic Fleet. Consequently, the city was closed to foreign visitors.

In 1957, an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.

The region was added as an exclave to the Russian SFSR; since 1946 it has been known as the Kaliningrad Oblast. According to some historians, Stalin created it as an oblast separate from the Lithuanian SSR because it further separated the Baltic states from the West. The names of the cities, towns, rivers and other geographical features were changed to Russian names.

The area was administered by the planning committee of the Lithuanian SSR, although it had its own Communist Party committee. However, the leadership of the Lithuanian SSR (especially Antanas Sniečkus) refused to annex the territory.[2] In 2010, the German magazine Der Spiegel published a report claiming that Kaliningrad had been offered to Germany in 1990 (against payment), but this was denied by Mikhail Gorbachev.

Today

Kaliningrad's isolation was exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when Lithuania became an independent country and even more when both Poland and Lithuania became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union in 2004. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence of the Baltic states, Kaliningrad Oblast has been separated from the rest of Russia by other countries instead of by other Soviet republics. Neighboring nations imposed strict border controls when they joined the European Union. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Russian proposals for visa-free travel between the EU and Kaliningrad have so far been rejected by the EU. Travel arrangements, based on the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD) have been made.[3][4]

The territory's economic situation was badly affected by its geographic isolation and the significant reduction in the size of the Russian military garrison, which had previously been one of the major employers and helped the local economy.

After 1991, some ethnic Germans began to return to the area, such as Volga Germans from other parts of Russia and Kazakhstan, especially after Germany raised the requirements for people from the former Soviet Union to be accepted as ethnic Germans and have a "right of return". These Germans are overwhelmingly Russian-speaking and as such were rejected for resettlement within Germany under Germany's new rules. A similar migration by Poles from the lands of the former Soviet Union to the Kaliningrad Oblast occurred at this time as well. The situation has begun to change, albeit slowly. Germany, Lithuania, and Poland have renewed contact with Kaliningrad Oblast, through town twinning and other projects. This has helped to promote interest in the history and culture of the East Prussian and Lietuvininkai communities.

In July 2005, the 750-year jubilee of the city was widely celebrated.

In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad was almost a certainty. These plans were suspended in January 2009, but implemented in October 2016. In 2011, a long range Voronezh radar was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 km. It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad Oblast.

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