Place:Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

Alt namesGroninguesource: Benezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976) p 10, 644
Grunnen, (Gronings)
Grins (Fries)
TypeStad, Gemeente
Coordinates53.217°N 6.583°E
Located inGroningen, Netherlands     (800 - )
Contained Places
Begraafplaats Selwerderhof
Zuiderbegraafplaats ( 1827 - )
Hemert ( 2019 - )
Inhabited place
Voormalige gemeente
Hoogkerk ( 1969 - )

source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog



the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The city was founded at the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city already existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD.

In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren, then tall, was built; it loomed over the city. The city's independence ended in 1536, when it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord.

In 1594, Groningen, until then held by Spain, was captured by a Dutch and English force led by Maurice of Nassau. Soon afterwards the city and the province joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces.

In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded, initially only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. That same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted, an event that is still celebrated with music and fireworks on August 28 (as "" or "Bommen Berend").

The city did not escape the devastation of World War II. In particular, the main square, the Grote Markt, was largely destroyed in April 1945 in the Battle of Groningen. However, the Martinitoren, its church, the Goudkantoor, and the city hall were not damaged. The battle lasted several days.

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Municipalities (gemeenten) of Groningen

Gemeenten Appingedam · Bedum · Bellingwedde · Delfzijl · Eemsmond · Groningen · Grootegast · Haren · Hoogezand-Sappemeer · Leek · Loppersum · Marne · Marum · Menterwolde · Oldambt · Pekela · Slochteren · Stadskanaal · Ten Boer · Veendam · Vlagtwedde · Winsum · Zuidhorn
Voormalige gemeenten: Adorp · Aduard · Baflo · Beerta · Bellingwolde · Bierum · Bourtange · Eenrum · Ezinge · Farmsum · Finsterwolde · Grijpskerk · Harkstede · Hoogezand · Hoogkerk · Kantens · Kloosterburen · Leens · Meeden · Middelstum · Midwolda · Muntendam · Nieuwe Pekela · Nieuweschans · Nieuwolda · Noordbroek · Noorddijk · Oldehove · Oldekerk · Onstwedde · Oude Pekela · Reiderland · Sappemeer · Scheemda · Siddeburen · Stedum · 't Zandt · Termunten · Uithuizen · Uithuizermeeden · Ulrum · Usquert · Warffum · Wedde · Westerlee · Wildervank · Windeweer · Winschoten · Zuidbroek