Place:Chattanooga, Hamilton, Tennessee, United States

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NameChattanooga
Alt namesLookout Citysource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Old French Storesource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Ross' Landingsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) III, 139; USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Rosss Landingsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Rosss Storesource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Rosss Warehousesource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
Rosss Wharfsource: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994) GNIS47015612
TypeCity
Coordinates35.033°N 85.3°W
Located inHamilton, Tennessee, United States     (1815 - )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Chattanooga is a city located in southeastern Tennessee along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, east-northeast of Huntsville, Alabama, and northeast of Birmingham, Alabama.

The city, with a downtown elevation of approximately , lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is "Scenic City", reinforced by the city's reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include "River City", "Chatt", "Nooga", "Chattown", and "Gig City", referencing Chattanooga's claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.

Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) and Chattanooga State Community College.

The city has its own typeface, Chatype, which was launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and also the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Early history

The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period (ca. 10,000 bce) show continuous human occupation through the Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi (900–1714 ce), and Cherokee (1776–1838) periods. The Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauga Creek is the oldest (ca. 750 ce) remaining visible art in Chattanooga.

The Citico town and mound site was the most significant Mississippian/Muscogee landmark in Chattanooga up to 1915. The first part of the name "Chattanooga" derives from the Muskogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ – 'rock'. The latter may be derived from a regional suffix -nuga meaning dwelling or dwelling place.

The earliest Cherokee occupation of the area dates from 1776, when Dragging Canoe separated himself from the main tribe to establish resistance to European settlement during the Cherokee–American wars. In 1816 John Ross, who later became Principal Chief, established Ross's Landing. Located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which also extended into Georgia and Alabama.[1]

In 1838, the U.S. government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native Americans, to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory, in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way. The U.S. Army used Ross's Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or "emigration depots", where Native Americans were held before the journey on the Trail of Tears.

In 1839, the community of Ross's Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga. The city grew quickly, initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town. The city was known as the site "where cotton meets corn," referring to its location along the cultural boundary between the mountain communities of southern Appalachia and the cotton-growing states to the south.

Civil War

During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. During the Chickamauga Campaign, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9, 1863. Following the Battle of Chickamauga, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga. On November 23, 1863, the Battles for Chattanooga began when Union forces led by Major General Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and advanced to Orchard Knob against Confederate troops besieging the city. The next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought, driving the Confederates off the mountain. On November 25, Grant's army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridge. These battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward. After the war ended, the city became a major railroad hub and industrial and manufacturing center.

1867 flood

The largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system was created in 1933 by Congress. The flood crested at and completely inundated the city. Since the completion of the reservoir system, the highest Chattanooga flood stage has been nearly , which occurred in 1973. Without regulation, the flood would have crested at . Chattanooga was a major priority in the design of the TVA reservoir system and remains a major operating priority in the 21st century.[2]

20th Century

In December 1906, Chattanooga was in the national headlines in United States v. Shipp, as the United States Supreme Court, in the only criminal trial in its history, ruled that Hamilton County Sheriff Joseph H. Shipp had violated Ed Johnson's civil rights when Shipp allowed a mob to enter the Hamilton County jail and lynch Johnson on the Walnut Street Bridge. Chattanooga grew with the entry of the United States in the First World War in 1917, as the nearest training camp was in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. Effects of the Influenza of 1918 on Chattanooga included having movie theaters and pool halls closed. By the 1930s, Chattanooga was known as the "Dynamo of Dixie", inspiring the 1941 Glenn Miller big-band swing song "Chattanooga Choo Choo". Through Mayor P.R. Olgiati's efforts, Chattanooga became the first city in Tennessee to have a completed interstate highway system in the early 1960s. In February 1958, Chattanooga became one of the smallest cities in the country with three VHF television stations: WROM-TV (now WTVC-TV) channel 9 (ABC), WRGP-TV (now WRCB-TV) channel 3 (NBC), and WDEF-TV channel 12 (CBS).

The same mountains that provide Chattanooga's scenic backdrop also served to trap industrial pollutants which caused them to settle over the community, so much that in 1969, the federal government declared that Chattanooga had the dirtiest air in the nation. But environmental crises were not the only problems plaguing the city. Like other early industrial cities, Chattanooga entered the 1970s with serious socioeconomic challenges, including job layoffs because of de-industrialization, deteriorating city infrastructure, racial tensions, and social division. Chattanooga's population increased by nearly 50,000 in the 1970s. However, this was mostly a result of annexation of existing residential areas into the city. By the 1980s, local leaders began an effort to revitalize and reinvent Chattanooga's economy. Chattanooga's population declined by more than 10% in the 1980s. However, Chattanooga was the only major U.S. city to lose a proportion of its population in the 1980s and then regain the same proportion in the next two decades.

21st Century

In 2017, Chattanooga's population growth rate was best among Tennessee's 4 biggest cities.

Chattanooga launched the first one gigabit per second Internet service in the United States in September 2010, provided through the city-owned utility of EPB.

In August 2012, Chattanooga developed its own typeface, called Chatype, which marks the first time a municipality has its own typeface in the United States and the first crowd-funded, custom-made typeface in the world.[3]

On July 16, 2015, a shooting occurred at two U.S. military facilities in Chattanooga. Six people—four U.S. Marines, one sailor, and the gunman—were killed, and two people were wounded.

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