Person:Nicholas II of Russia (1)

     
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Facts and Events
Name[1] Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Baptismal Name[1] Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov
Religious Name[1] Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer
Gender Male
Birth[1] 18 May 1868 Tsarskoye Selo, Saint Petersburg, RussiaHouse of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Engagement April 1894 Coburg, Coburg, Oberfranken, Bayern, Germanyto Alexandra Feodorovna
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Mathilde Kschessinska
Title (nobility)[1] 1 November 1894-15 March 1917 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaEmperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reference Number? Q40787?
Marriage 26 November 1894 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaGrand Church of the Winter Palace
to Alexandra Feodorovna
Residence August 1917 Tobolsk, Tyumen, Uralsky, Russiawith Alexandra Feodorovna
Residence May 1918 Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk, Uralsky, Russiawith Alexandra Feodorovna
Death[1] 17 Jul 1918 Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk, Uralsky, Russia
Burial[1][3] 17 July 1998 Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, RussiaPeter and Paul Cathedral/Fortress


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody or Vile Nicholas by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the execution of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905).[1] Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.

Russia was defeated in the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War, which saw the annihilation of the reinforcing Russian Baltic Fleet after being sent on its round-the-world cruise at the naval Battle of Tsushima, off the coasts of Korea and Japan, the loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea, and the Japanese annexation to the north of South Sakhalin Island. The Anglo-Russian Entente was designed to counter the German Empire's attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, but it also ended the Great Game of confrontation between Russia and the United Kingdom. When all Russian diplomatic efforts to prevent the First World War (1914–1918) failed, Nicholas approved the Imperial Russian Army mobilization on 30 July 1914, which gave Imperial Germany formal grounds to declare war on Russia on 1 August 1914. An estimated 3.3 million Russians were killed in the First World War. The Imperial Russian Army's severe losses, the High Command's incompetent management of the war efforts, and lack of food and supplies on the home front were all leading causes of the fall of the House of Romanov.

Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son and heir, the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich. He and his family were imprisoned and transferred to Tobolsk in late summer 1917. On 30 April 1918, Nicholas, Alexandra, and their daughter Maria were handed over to the local Ural Soviet council in Ekaterinburg (renamed Sverdlovsk during the Soviet era); the rest of the captives followed on 23 May. Nicholas and his family were executed by their Bolshevik guards on the night of 16/17 July 1918. The remains of the imperial family were later found, exhumed, identified and re-interred with elaborate State and Church ceremony in St. Petersburg on 17 July 1998.

In 1981, Nicholas, his wife, and their children were recognized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia in New York City. On 15 August 2000, they were canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as passion bearers, commemorating believers who face death in a Christ-like manner.

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References
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Nicholas II of Russia, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

    Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolai II, Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.[2] His official short title was Tsar Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias.[3] Like other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar (though Russia formally ended the Tsardom in 1721). He is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and has been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.

  2.   Nikolai II Aleksandrovich Romanov, Tsar of Russia, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  3. Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov, in Find A Grave: St. Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation
    Memorial# 8100, Jan 11, 2000.

    Birth: May 6, 1868, Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation
    Death: Jul. 17, 1918, Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation
    Burial: St. Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Federal City, Russian Federation
    Cause of death: Shot by Bolshevik firing squad