Person:Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)

Ferdinand II _____, Holy Roman Emperor
d.15 Feb 1637
Facts and Events
Name Ferdinand II _____, Holy Roman Emperor
Gender Male
Birth[1] 9 Jul 1578 Graz, Steiermark, AustriaHouse of Habsburg
Marriage 23 Apr 1600 Graz, Steiermark, Austriato Maria Anna von Bayern
Marriage 1622 to Eleonor Gonzaga
Death[1] 15 Feb 1637
Reference Number? Q150599?


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637). He was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and Maria of Bavaria. In 1590, his parents, who were devout Catholics, sent him to study at the Jesuits' college in Ingolstadt, because they wanted to isolate him from the Lutheran nobles. In the same year, he inherited Inner AustriaStyria, Carinthia, Carniola and smaller provincesfrom his father. Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the head of the Habsburg family, appointed regents to administer Inner Austria on behalf of the minor Ferdinand.

Ferdinand was installed as the actual ruler of the Inner Austrian provinces in 1596 and 1597. Rudolph II also charged him with the command of the defense of Croatia, Slavonia and southeastern Hungary against the Ottoman Empire. He regarded the regulation of religious issues as a royal prerogative and introduced strict Counter-Reformation measures from 1598. First, he ordered the expulsion of all Protestant pastors and teachers, then he established special commissions to restore the Catholic parishes. The Ottomans captured Nagykanizsa in Hungary in 1600, which enabled them to invade Styria. A year later, Ferdinand tried to recapture the fortress, but the action ended with a defeat due to the unprofessional command of his troops in November 1601. During the first stage of the family feud known as the Brothers' Quarrel, Ferdinand initially supported Rudolph II's brother, Maximilian, who wanted to convince the melancholic Emperor to abdicate, but Matthias' concessions to the Protestants in Hungary, Austria and Bohemia outraged him. He planned an alliance to strengthen the position of the Catholic Church in the Holy Roman Empire, but the Catholic princes established the Catholic League without his participation in 1610.

Philip III of Spain, who was the childless Matthias' nephew, acknowledged Ferdinand's right to succeed Matthias in Bohemia and Hungary in exchange for territorial concessions in 1617. Spain also supported Ferdinand against the Republic of Venice during the Uskok War in 1617–18. The Diets of Bohemia and Hungary confirmed Ferdinand's position as Matthias' successor only after he had promised to respect the Estates' privileges in both realms. The different interpretation of the Letter of Majesty, which summarized the Bohemian Protestants' liberties, gave rise to an uprising, known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618. The Bohemian rebels established a provisional government, invaded Upper Austria and sought assistance from the Habsburgs' opponents. After Matthias' death on 20 March 1619, Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor, but the Protestant Bohemian Estates dethroned him and offered the crown to the Calvinist Frederick V of the Palatinate on 26 August.

The Thirty Years' War had begun in 1618 as a result of inadequacies of his predecessors Rudolf II and Matthias. But Ferdinand's acts against Protestantism caused the war to engulf the whole empire. As a zealous Catholic, Ferdinand wanted to restore the Catholic Church as the only religion in the Empire and to wipe out any form of religious dissent. The war left the Holy Roman Empire devastated, its cities in ruins, and its population took a century to recover.

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References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.


Succession of Holy Roman Emperors
Rudolf II

1576-1611
his cousin (Matthias's brother)

Matthias

1612-1619
his cousin

Holy Roman Emperor-Elect

1619-1637

Ferdinand III

1637-1657
his son

Leopold I

1658-1705
his grandson

Succession of Hungarian Monarchs
Rudolf

1576-1608
his cousin (Matthias's brother)

Matthias

1608-1619
his cousin

King of Royal Hungary

1618-1637

Ferdinand III

1625-1657
his son

Ferdinand IV

1647-1654
(Nominal during father's reign)
his son

Hungary was effectively split into three parts from 1563-1699: Royal Hungary in the north and west, Ottoman Hungary in the south, and the Principality of Transylvania in the east. They were united following the Great Turkish War under Leopold I in 1699.
Succession of Bohemian Monarchs
Rudolf

1576-1611
his cousin (Matthias's brother)

Matthias

1611-1619
his cousin

King of Bohemia

1619-1637

Ferdinand III

1627-1657
his son

Ferdinand IV

1646-1654
(Nominal during father's reign)
his son

Succession of German Monarchs
Rudolf

1575-1612
his cousin (Matthias's brother)

Matthias

1612-1619
his cousin

King of the Romans

1619-1637

Ferdinand III

1636-1657
his son

Ferdinand IV

1653-1654
(Nominal during father's reign)
his son